Mid-Klamath and Salmon Rivers tributary flow data in KRIS were provided by Jon B. Grunbaum of the Klamath and Six Rivers National Forests, Happy Camp Office. These data were originally collected and held by: (1) Orleans Ranger District of the Six Rivers National Forest, (2) Happy Camp District of the Klamath National Forest and, (3) the Karuk Tribe of California - Department of Natural Resources. All flow data were quality assured by the Klamath and Six Rivers National Forests, Happy Camp Office. Flow data were collected periodically between 1996 and 2002 in order to help characterize the flow regimes of these tributaries. Because flow data were not collected synoptically or at the same time each year, establishing base flows for tributaries would take a more methodical effort.
In summer of 2002, the field crews from the Karuk Tribe's Natural Resources Department conducted a detailed study of fish distribution in the lower portions of Middle Klamath tributaries and in the coldwater refugia in the Klamath River at the mouths of those creeks. Tributaries were visited approximately once per week and a variety of information was collected (not every time and every site), including: a snorkel survey of lower 3 pools on each creek and the refugia in mainstem at creek mouths, water temperatures, water quality, creek pool depths. Photographs of the sites were also taken. The Karuk Tribe's data were sent to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Office (USFWS) in Arcata, where they were assimilated into a larger USFWS database by Mark Magneson. The entire dataset will be analyzed in a USFWS report, but this report was not completed in time to be included in KRIS version 3.
The Karuk Tribe and Salmon River Restoration Council added map information for the Middle Klamath and Salmon River Basins. These data were originally in ArcView but have been captured and integrated into the KRIS Version 3.0 database, which has a built-in KRIS Map Viewer. The Middle Klamath KRIS maps also include data from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), Humboldt State University, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Salmon Mountain Forestry. To learn more about fish distribution, fire and ERFO site themes from the Middle Klamath see note.
Klamath Basin Cooperative Summer Steelhead Surveys
The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Forest Service have cooperated to count summer steelhead annually in Klamath and Trinity River basin tributaries. The early data in KRIS was provided by the California Department of Fish and Game Endangered Salmonids Coordinator Eric Gerstung. Counts may reflect complete dive surveys of streams or may be an extrapolation based on dive surveys of sample reaches. Data from counts may be published separately by the U.S. Forest Service. The Klamath National Forest coordinates an annual Salmon River spring chinook survey, which also includes summer steelhead and trend reports are published periodically. Shasta Trinity National Forest has assumed responsibility for the North Fork Trinity, New River and Canyon Creek (Everest, 1997). Results of annual dive surveys are available on the fisheries web pages of the Shasta Trinity National Forest web site. Garrison (2002) reported summer steelhead counts in the South Fork Trinity River. See Kier Associates (1999) for specific discussions of recent Klamath River summer steelhead trends (search on key words summer steelhead in Adobe Acrobat).
Klamath National Forest Storm
Damage Assessment Reports
Charts in KRIS related to road failures and flood damage in the Middle Klamath are from data collected by the Klamath National Forest (KNF). Landslide and road failure raw data was not available for use in KRIS; therefore, estimates of the number of these features by watershed were estimated by counting points on maps. The Effects of the 1997 Floods on the Klamath National Forest (De La Fuente, 1998) provides an in depth analysis of the types and locations of landslides and road failures on the forest. The January 1997 storm caused over $27 million dollars damage to the KNF road system. Funding for repair of the roads and other forest infrastructure damaged by the storm was provided through the Emergency Relief for Federally Owned Roads (ERFO). Flood damage sites, known as ERFO sites, were predominantly road failures and 712 sites were funded for treatment. De La Fuente (1998) considered precipitation, flows, storm recurrence interval, elevation, geology, slope and previous management for links to flood damage. The geographic area of the study was from the Trinity Alps, in the headwaters of the South Fork Salmon River, north through the Marble Mountains and into the Indian Creek and Beaver Creek watersheds in the Siskiyou Mountains. See an excerpted synopsis of the KNF study from the Mid Program Evaluation of the Klamath River Basin Fishery Restoration Program (Kier Assoc., 1999).
Vegetation Types and Timber Size Classes From 1994 Landsat Imagery
The vegetation and timber types shown for the Lower Klamath sub basin were derived from Landsat multi-spectral images taken in 1994. They were provided to Humboldt State University by NASA as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The Humboldt State University Spatial Analysis Laboratory analyzed the image using the Wildlife Habitat Classification method under the direction of Dr. Larry Fox. To learn more about vegetation and timber types, see the Vegetation Type Background page. For use in KRIS, vegetation and timber types were simplified into ten classifications. Vegetation classifications are:
Very Large Trees = 36" in diameter or greater
Large Trees = 24-36" in diameter
Medium Trees = 11-24" in diameter
Small Trees = 6-11" in diameter
Small Trees/Shrubs = Trees 1-6" in diameter and shrubs
This simpler classification provides an easy to understand index of watershed disturbance in coastal watersheds but difficulties may be encountered in interior areas of the Klamath Basin. Large components of early seral stage conditions (i.e.. shrubs, grasses and bare soil) are often associated with recent logging disturbance in coastal areas whereas the same signatures in interior Klamath watersheds may be as a result of site conditions. The resolution of Landsat images is about 30 meters. An accuracy assessment for the Klamath Basin is currently underway by HSU in a project funded by USFWS Yreka. Problems can arise from topographic shading causing some over estimation of old growth, for example. Size classes in the range of 20-30 inches may also be under-represented. The USFS vegetation classification data using one hectare resolution and providing forest community character is also included for comparison.
There now hundreds of water temperature datasets for Klamath River basin locations in KRIS Version 3.0. Mainstem Klamath River and Middle Klamath Basin tributary water temperature data has been collected by numerous entities and agencies including Klamath National Forest, Six Rivers National Forest, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Karuk Tribe, PacifiCorp, the California State Water Resources Control Board and the California Department of Fish and Game. Much of the data for years before 1995 for both the Klamath and tributary basins was assimilated by Tim Mahan on behalf of the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board and provided for use in KRIS.
A water temperature database for the years 1997-2002 was contributed to KRIS by the Klamath National Forest Supervisors Office. The dataset covers Klamath National Forest landholdings in the Middle Klamath sub-basin, as well as the Scott River sub-basin. The original source database includes the 165 sites across the Klamath National Forest. The version of the database included in KRIS includes 68 sites in the Klamath basin, with 41 in Middle Klamath sub-basin tributaries, 12 in the mainstem Klamath River, and 15 in the Scott River sub-basin. An ArcView shapefile of monitoring locations is included in KRIS and descriptions of monitoring site locations can also be viewed as a table.
The region-wide temperature data assimilation by the Institute for Forest and Watershed Management (IFWM) at Humboldt State University, formerly known as the Forest Science Project, aided data acquisition for Version 3.0 greatly. IFWM published an access database of stream temperature monitoring data for the northern California coast (Lewis et al., 2000). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Arcata Field Office has deployed automated temperature sensors throughout the Klamath and Trinity River watersheds, including the a number of stations along the mainstem Klamath River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has published numerous reports which utilize the water temperature data they collect (Guillien, 2003; Zedonis, 2003). Water temperature references used in KRIS are based on Pacific Northwest wide literature on salmonids and temperature (Armor, 1990; McCullough, 1999; Sullivan et al., 2000; Welsh, 2001). See the KRIS Temperature Background page for more information.