Bibliography Background About KRIS

Shasta River Water Temperature Records

Shasta River water temperature data has been collected by North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board staff Gwynne (1993), the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the Siskiyou County Schools Office, the staff of the Shasta River Coordinated Resource Management Planning (CRMP) group and more recently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The USFWS has only collected data in the near the mouth of the Shasta because it is largely concerned with mainstem Klamath River water quality. NCRWQCB records for the Gwynne (1993) report were collected using hand held thermometer readings, however, NCRWQCB staff did deploy automated temperature sensors in 1991 and 1992. 

CDFG and CRMP staff employ continuous reading data recorders. Water temperature of the Shasta River is recognized as limiting production of salmon and steelhead (Ricker, 1997). The Shasta CRMP has taken responsibility for assimilating all temperature data and those data were shared with the KRIS project. The data span from 1994 to 2002 and not all relationships were charted in Version 3.0 of KRIS due to budget limitations. The CRMP has provided notes on dates each probe were deployed and also notes of data quality.

Water temperature references used in KRIS are based on Pacific Northwest wide literature on salmonids and temperature (Armor, 1990; McCullough, 1999; Sullivan et al., 2000; Welsh, 2001). See the KRIS Temperature Background page for more information.

The following locations are where Gwynne (1993) collected his water quality data:
Highway 263 = rm 7.25, Anderson Grade Rd. = rm 8, Ager/Beswick Rd. = 10.54, Highway 3 = rm 12.79, Montague/Grenada Rd = 15.17, A-12 = rm 20.99, East Louie Rd. = 31.86, Riverside Dr. = 37.73.

California Department of Fish and Game temperature data collection locations are as follows:
Anderson = Anderson Grade Rd., Ager = Ager-Beswick Rd., HWY263 = Highway 263, HWY3 = Highway 3, MONTGRBR = Montague-Grenada Rd., A12 = County Road A-12, NOVYDWN and NOVYUP = upper and lower end of Novy property, GRENADIR = Grenada Irrigation District pump, LITSHAS = Little Shasta River, LOUIE = Louie Road, MOUTHSHAS = convergence of Shasta and Klamath, PARKS = Parks Creek and DWIN = Dwinell Dam.

Shasta River Specific Conductance or Conductivity

Specific conductance is a measure of the electrical conductance of water at 25 degrees C and is a function of the concentration of dissolved solids in solution. Shasta River conductivity has been measured by staff of the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board (NCRWQCB) from 1986 to 1992 (Gwynne, 1993) and the staff of the Shasta River Coordinated Resource Management Planning (CRMP) group. Sampling was done approximately on a monthly basis during summer and samples were taken by hand not with a continuous data recorder. Elevated conductivity levels result from any increase in dissolved solids. Mineralized spring water, natural soil constituents, fertilizer and animal waste can all contribute to increased conductivity. Conductivity readings are consistently higher during drought years according to reports by the California Department of Water Resources (1980).

The NCRWQCB Basin Plan objective for specific conductance in the Shasta River is a maximum not exceeding 800 micro mhos, and a median not exceeding 600 micro mhos. The median represents the monthly mean for a calendar year. The frequency of sampling by Gwynne (1994) did not provide sufficient data to determine if NCRWQCB objectives were exceeded. Gwynne's sampling locations were as follows:

Highway 263 = rm 7.25, Anderson Grade Rd. = rm 8, Ager/Beswick Rd. = rm 10.54, Highway 3 = rm 12.79, Montague/Grenada Rd = rm 15.17, A-12 = rm 20.99, East Louie Rd. = rm 31.86, Riverside Dr. = rm 37.73.

Shasta River Dissolved Oxygen

Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) data on the Shasta River has been collected by the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board staff  ( Gwynne, 1993) and by the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG). Gwynne (1993) sampled water quality from 1988 to 1992. Both agencies used a Yellow Springs Instrument dissolved oxygen meter which is calibrated before each use. It is essential that membranes on the meter probe remain in a high humidity environment between use or be replaced and such procedures were followed. CDFG measurements were taken only in early morning hours which is the only time of day that dissolved oxygen problems can be expected (see Chart WQ: D.O. Nocturnal/Diurnal Changes). Once algae and other aquatic plants begin to photosynthesize, D.O. levels rise. Dissolved oxygen levels of less than 5 are stressful for salmonids and those less than 4 may be lethal. Gwynne (1993) suggests that something in addition to nocturnal respiration of plants is leading to severely depressed dissolved oxygen levels, such as decomposition in sediment along the stream bottom. This problem may be particularly acute upstream of diversion dams which slow water flow and allow a build up of organic material. The following locations are where Gwynne (1993) collected his water quality data:

Highway 263 = rm 7.25, Anderson Grade Rd. = rm 8, Ager/Beswick Rd. = 10.54, Highway 3 = rm 12.79, Montague/Grenada Rd = 15.17, A-12 = rm 20.99, East Louie Rd. = 31.86, Riverside Dr. = 37.73.

Fall Chinook Salmon Population Estimates and Incidental Coho and Steelhead Counts

The California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) has operated a counting weir, the Shasta Racks, on the Shasta River since 1930. Because the fall chinook salmon enter the river during periods of relatively low flow, they may be easily intercepted and counted (to see the Shasta Racks, click on picture). Coho salmon and steelhead trout were also counted incidentally at the racks, but rack operation in most years would miss the main part of the run for both these species which tend to have later spawn timing. The following notes were recently compiled by CDFG to explain some of the possible differences in rack counts:

1930-1937: Rack operated at the mouth of the Shasta River
1938: Rack moved 6.5 miles upstream
1950: Hole in the weir and no dates for rack operation (count incomplete)
1956: No count, storm damage to weir (1955 Flood)
1957: Weir moved back downstream to mouth
1981: Flood damage, incomplete counts
1989: High water forced early removal
1990: Weir operated as marking station

In early years of operation, the entire fall chinook run was counted. When the racks were moved, many fall chinook spawned below the racks in the Shasta River canyon which may have caused an under estimation of the Shasta chinook population. CDFG has made attempts to compensate for these errors through adding estimates of spawner counts below the weir from J.O. Wales in the 1950's.

Between 1990 and 1996, CDFG decided that it was not prudent to handle every fish and instead captured a portion of the run and marked fish with tags. In those years there was a carcass survey that counts both tagged and untagged fish. This allowed for an accurate population estimate through statistical expansion using the ratio of tagged to untagged fish. The amount of time that the Shasta Racks were operated daily was consistent so that weekly counts were comparable between years. Since 1998, a video camera has been used so that all fish can be counted but only a subset handled and an accurate population estimate can be made without a redd and carcass survey. See Hampton (2001; 2002) for more information about recent returns and operation of the racks from KRIS Version 3.0 Bibliography.

Shasta River Downstream Migrant Trapping Data

The California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) operated a fyke net for the purpose of trapping downstream migrating chinook salmon juveniles in 1981, 1986, 1987, 1988 and 1990. The trap results were used to understand life history patterns, such as timing of out-migration. Some juvenile chinook were also coded wire tagged as part of this project to track their migration outside the Shasta basin. More recently, CDFG has operated rotary screw traps in the Shasta River and Scott River from 2000-2002 (Chesney, 2000; 2002; Chesney and Yokel, 2003) as part of the Steelhead Research and Monitoring Program (S-RAMP). The trap on the Shasta River was located at the Department’s Shasta River Fish Counting Facility, located one quarter mile upstream from the confluence with the Klamath River. Typically downstream migrant trap results can not be used to estimate population size because results may be substantially effected by changes in flow and other factors such as trap avoidance. The rotary screw traps run by S-RAMP were calibrated for efficiency so that estimates could be made of the total number of fish passing the trap. Trap efficiencies vary greatly between the Scott and Shasta because of their different widths and flows. 

Water Flow Data

Water flow data on the Shasta River has been collected by the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) since 1912. Data in KRIS was downloaded from the USGS Internet site. The flow gauge on the Shasta River is just upstream of the convergence with the Klamath River. Data is stored as average daily flows in cubic feet per second for the period of record. Because of the highly variable flows between years, please note the scale of the Y axis may have a maximum ranging from 150 cfs to 15,000 cfs when different water years are selected for display. To learn more about USGS flow data and applicable terminology, see an excerpt from Wahl et al. (1995). The following is the metadata note downloaded from the Internet for the USGS flow gauge on the main Shasta River:



Station name : SHASTA R NR YREKA CA
Station number: 11517500
latitude (degrees, minutes, and seconds)...... 414923
longitude (degrees, minutes, and seconds)..... 1223540
state code.................................... 06
county code................................... 093
hydrologic unit code.......................... 18010207
drainage area (square miles).................. 793.00
contributing drainage area (square miles).....
gage datum (feet above NGVD).................. 2000.00
WATSTORE parameter code....................... 00060
WATSTORE statistic code....................... 00003
Discharge is listed in the table in cubic feet per second.
To see a complete explanation of USGS gauge station protocols and terminology see Main Klamath flow gauges in Info Links.

Restoration Photo Points Provided by the Shasta Resource Conservation District

The Shasta Resource Conservation District and Cooperative Resource Management Plan (CRMP) coordinate restoration  projects on private land in the Shasta River watershed. The RCD and CRMP have provided photos for use in KRIS and have worked cooperatively to help assemble them into slide tours which show their accomplishments. Project funding has been provided by a number of sources including the California Department of Fish and Game, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Klamath Task Force and Jobs in the Woods) and the California Wildlife Conservation Board. KRIS Version 3.0 contains two new evaluation reports from contributed by Dave Webb, Shasta CRMP coordinator, one for the Fiock Dam replacement (Great Northern, 2001) and an innovative screen for the Nelson property (Webb, 2002). 

Shasta Basin Climate Data

Rainfall and snowfall data for the Shasta Basin was downloaded for use from the California Data Exchange Center (CDEC) web site as text files and converted into Dbase IV for use in KRIS. Relative location maps are also downloaded and can be viewed as Pictures associated with climate Topics. Snowfall data is displayed for April to allow inter annual comparisons. Data collection in other months is too sporadic to allow for substantial comparison.


Klamath River Basin Fishery Restoration Program Mid-Term Review

Kier Associates  (1999) produced the Mid program Evaluation for the Klamath River Basin Fishery Restoration Program for the Klamath Task Force and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This project was in part focused on changes in habitat conditions since the inception of the Klamath Restoration Program in 1986 and also in the success of  Program investments in restoration projects. Kier Associates did a field reconnaissance of the Shasta River and other sub basins in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the effect of the January 1997 storm. For fuller discussion of habitat trends in the Shasta Basin and the effectiveness of restoration, see Kier Associates (1999) and search on key words Shasta River in Adobe Acrobat.


Shasta River Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Total dissolved solids (TDS) is defined as the material left behind after a sample has been filtered and evaporated. The natural quantity of dissolved material in water depends on the rock and soil types the water contacts. Water flowing through alkaline soils, such as those in the Shasta Valley, may be naturally high. Agricultural run-off such as animal wastes or fertilizers can also elevate TDS.


KRIS Map Project Partially Integrated into Version 3.0 Database
All KRIS database projects have companion ArcView projects for the geographic area covered and selected themes are now included in KRIS Version 3.0, which has a new built in KRIS Map Viewer. Nearly all map layers have a readily-accessible companion metadata file that describes the map layer and provides contact information for the source of that layer. If KRIS is installed on your computer's hard drive and you are viewing maps using the KRIS Map Viewer (the map tab), you can view metadata for a layer by clicking on a layer in the map legend to make it the active layer and then clicking the "M" (metadata) button on the toolbar. If you are browsing KRIS on the Internet site, or viewing the web pages included on the KRIS CD-ROMs, you can view map metadata by clicking on a metadata link at the link at the bottom of a map page. 

The Shasta River KRIS Map project relies heavily on base layers provided by Humboldt State University and Dave Webb, the Shasta CRMP coordinator.  No new data were added to the Shasta KRIS Map project for Version 3.0 because of budget limitations, but selected themes were added to the KRIS database to demonstrate the new KRIS Map Viewer and its utility for sharing Shasta River watershed spatial data. Data are acquired from various sources and re-projected, easily understood legends crafted and metadata compiled by Dr. Paul Trichilo of the KRIS project. Data are arranged for ease of use in subsequent watershed studies. Vegetation data were derived from Landsat satellite images by the U.S. Forest Service Spatial Analysis Lab. To learn more about vegetation and timber types, see the Vegetation Type Background page. 


Photos of the Klamath Basin by Michael Hentz

Naturalist Michael Hentz has photographed the Klamath River and its watershed as a vocation and as a passion. His photos of the Klamath River watershed for the World Wildlife Fund serve to document riverine and upland conditions in this area recognized globally for its biodiversity. Hentz also boated down the Klamath River from its headwater tributary, the Sprague River, through Upper Klamath Lake, through several reservoirs and down the river to the ocean. Michael donated the use of his photos for KRIS Version 3.0 but requests credit for any use outside KRIS.

Note about documents in KRIS