Executive Summary .

Chapter 1: Introduction

Organization of this Report

Location of the South Fork Trinity River Watershed

Project Objectives

Background Information


Chapter 2: South Fork Trinity River Fish Stock Identification and Population Trends

Stock Identification

Population Trends

The Endangered Species Act and South Fork Salmon and Steelhead

Chapter 3: Ecological Condition of Streams as a Factor Limiting Production

of Salmon and Steelhead

What is Habitat Typing?

What Can Habitat Typing Tell Us?

Problems With Habitat Typing Information and Its Use

South Fork Trinity River Basin Habitat Typing Report

Comparing Fish Densities and Key Habitat Variables


Chapter 4: Landscape Stability and Erodibility

Sediment Yield

Sources of Sediment

Erosional Sensitivity of South Fork Trinity River Sub-Watersheds

Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Sedimentation

Future Direction

Impacts of Past and Future Floods

Historic Changes in Main Stem Channel Conditions

Historic Changes inTributary Channel Conditions

Fire Effects

Chapter 5: Forest Land Management as a Limiting Factor In Restoration of South Fork Trinity River Fisheries

Land Ownership and Basin Data

South Fork Trinity River Timber Harvesting History

Forestry Impacts

Cumulative Watershed Effects Analysis and Implementation

Land Use Practices on Private Lands

Best Management Practices

Chapter 6: Water Diversion and Water Pollution as Limiting Factors for Fisheries Resources

California Water Law

Water Diversion and Water Use in the Hayfork Sub-basin

Water Pollution

Effects of Diversion and Pollution on Fisheries


Chapter 7: Fishing as a Limiting Factor on South Fork Trinity River Stocks


Agencies That Manage Klamath Basin Salmon and Steelhead

Fisheries and Their Potential Impact

PFMC Salmon Management Model Strives to Protect Natural Spawners

Possible Solution to Harvest Threat to South Fork Stocks

Wild Trout Regulations in Hayfork Creek a Potential Benefit

The Indirect Impacts of Fisheries on Salmon Food Resources


Chapter 8: Large Scale Hatchery Production and Potential Impacts on Wild Salmon and Steelhead Stocks

Potential Impacts of Hatchery Strays on Fitness of Wild Fish

Hatchery Disease Problems and Possible Effects on Wild Fish

Sharp Rise in Pre-Spawning Mortality a Cause for Concern

Competition of Hatchery Fish with Wild South Fork Fish

California Department of Fish and Game to Limit Hatchery Output


Chapter 9: Small Scale Rearing and Fish Population Restoration

Side Effects of Small Scale Rearing or Hatchery Programs

Policies and Guidelines for Small Scale Rearing

Role of Small Scale Fish Culture in South Fork Fish Restoration

Analysis, By Species, of Small Scale Hatchery Options

The Most Promising Options For Small Scale Culture


Chapter 10: South Fork Trinity River BasinFisheries Habitat Improvement Projects

Habitat Restoration Projects in the South Fork Basin

Evaluating the Benefit of Fish Habitat Improvements

Transition in Restoration Strategies


Chapter 11: Watershed Rehabilitation and Erosion Control for Fisheries Restoration

Previous Suggestions for Rehabilitation in the South Fork

Drainage Basin Watershed Inventories

Results of Watershed Inventories

Implementation of Erosion Prevention Work


Chapter 12: The Changing Roles of Agencies Involved in Restoring Fisheries and Habitat in South Fork Trinity River

Authority and Responsibilities of Agencies

How Lack of Coordination and Cooperation Has Impacted Fisheries

Intra-agency Barriers That May Hinder Fisheries Restoration


Chapter 13: Applied Research and Monitoring of Resource Conditions: Past Efforts and Future Needs

Past Watershed Monitoring and Research Provides Insight and Data

Selected Monitoring & Research Tools Needed to Guide Restoration

Chapter 14: The Role of Education in Watershed and fisheries Restoration

Fisheries and Watershed Education in Public Schools

Adult Education

Chapter 15: Learning From Other Fisheries Restoration Plans

Summer Steelhead Management Plan: Middle Fork Eel River

Klamath River Restoration Program Authorized by Congress

Salmon River (California) Spring Chinook Recovery Strategy

A Restoration Strategy for Idaho's South Fork Salmon River

Model Steelhead Stream Demonstration Program (South Fork)

South Fork Trinity River Salmonid Habitat Enhancement Studies

Tomki Creek Watershed Restoration Plan

East Branch of the North Fork Feather River CRMP

Redwood National Park Watershed Rehabilitation

USFS Erosion Prevention Strategy on the Nooksack River

Newly Emerging Regional Strategy for Watershed and Fish Restoration


Chapter 16: South Fork Trinity River RestorationAction Plan Recommendations

Organizational Framework for Guiding the Restoration Program

Funding for the Coordinated Resource Management Plan

Technical Framework & Goals for South Fork Restoration Program

Overview of Restoration Recommendations for Watershed Areas

Specific Recommendations for Fisheries Restoration

Recommendations for Forest Land Use in the South Fork

Recommendations for Future Watershed Erosion Control Activities

Research and Monitoring Recommendations to Guide Restoration

Chapter 17: Finding Resources and Funding Sources toRestore South Fork Trinity River Fisheries

Funding and Technical Assistance To Help With Water Conservation

Resources Available For Riparian Restoration

Using Forest Improvement Funds to Help Restore Private Watersheds

Watershed Stabilization on National Forest Lands

Fisheries Restoration as an Element of Economic Development

Waste Water Treatment and Water Conservation

Cooperative Funding Strategies For Monitoring

California Department of Fish and Game Fish Restoration Funds

Volunteer Support and Private Funding

County Fish and Game Advisory Committees Another Source

Recent Developments in Economic Development and Restoration Funding


References Cited

Personal Communications

List of Tables

2-1. Age at maturity of spring chinook salmon trapped on South Fork Trinity River in 1991 and 1992.

2-2. Adult salmon and steelhead estimates from 1963-1992 with years omitted for which there is no data

2-3. South Fork Trinity River female fall chinook salmon sex ratio, number returning, mortality and number surviving to spawn

2-4. Steelhead Counts in South Fork Tributaries 1988-91

3-1. Steelhead juvenile densities (in fish/meter2), by age, for various streams

3-2. Combined juvenile steelhead densities with a comparison to stream temperatures (in degrees F) and sand and fine sediment in pools

3-3. Maximum and Minimum Stream Temperatures from USFS Monitoring Program

4-1. Estimated total sediment yield, 1961-1990

4-2. Estimated sediment sources, South Fork Trinity River basin

4-3. Landslide occurrence in geologic units of the South Fork Trinity River basin

5-1. Logging history for selected South Fork Trinity River tributary basins covering 50% of the total watershed area

5-2. "Upper" South Fork Trinity River Watershed Summary

5-3. "Hayfork Creek" Watershed Summary

5-4. "Lower" South Fork Trinity River Watershed Summary

7-1. California salmon troll landings, the value of the catch, number of vessels landing salmon and number of licensed vessels

7-2. Number of Klamath basin fall chinook salmon harvested by various user groups from 1978-1992

7-3. Estimated catch of Klamath fall chinook salmon in by commercial troll and ocean sport fishermen from 1986-1992

7-4. Preseason estimates of impact of ocean salmon fisheries on Age 4 fall chinook compared to post season estimates, 1988-1992

7-5. Escapement rates of Klamath sub-basin and Trinity River sub-basin fall chinook stocks as calculated from survival of hatchery releases of fall chinook fingerlings

8-1. Stray rates of hatchery fall chinook into the South Fork Trinity River basin (1984-1990)

8-2. Pre-spawn Mortality Rate For Female Fall Chinook Salmon in the South Fork Trinity and Upper Trinity River 1955-1990

10-1. South Fork Trinity River Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Projects: Including Agencies Involved and Level and Type of Treatment .

10-2. Fish Screens Installed in South Fork Trinity River Tributaries Including: Installation Date, Season of Operation, Flow Diverted and Bypass Flows

10-3. Types of Instream Fish Habitat Improvement Structures Placed in South Fork Trinity River Basin Tributaries

List of Figures

1-1. South Fork Trinity River, and Trinity River basin, in relation to the entire Klamath River Watershed

1-2. Location map for South Fork Trinity River basin

2-1. Returns of South Fork Trinity River fall chinook salmon from 1985-1990 with Age 2 fish (jacks) distinguished from older aged adults

3-1. Comparison of fine sediment and sand in pool habitats, as determined by habitat typing surveys, in various streams throughout Six Rivers National Forest

3-2. Densities of juvenile salmonids by reach from Slide Creek to the East Fork of the South Fork Trinity River Figure Page

3-3. Juvenile steelhead densities in reaches of Hayfork Creek above and below Hayfork Valley

3-4. Fine sediment and sand in pool habitats in various tributaries to or reaches of the South Fork Trinity River

3-5. Maximum water temperatures in lower Hayfork Creek at Hyampom compared to the South Fork Trinity River below Butter Creek between May 1 and October 1, 1990

4-1. Geologic terranes in the South Fork Trinity River basin

4-2. Stability and erosional sensitivity of South Fork Trinity River watershed

5-1. Private and Federal ownership in the south Fork Trinity River basin

5-2. South Fork Trinity River sub-basin map

7-1. Ocean range of Klamath basin salmon stocks

7-2. Estimated catch of Klamath basin fall chinook salmon by various fisheries and escapement of natural spawners 1978-1992

7-3. Map of where the high seas driftnet fishery for squid takes place

7-4. Klamath River fall chinook adult natural spawners, 1978-1992, including original and revised escapement floors set by the PFMC

7-5. Regression using the number of two year old fall chinook salmon (jacks) to estimate the abundance of three year olds

7-6. Regression for prediction of Age 4 ocean fall chinook

7-8. Area managed as the Klamath Management Zone (KMZ) to protect Klamath fall chinook stocks and time/area cells used under the Klamath Ocean Harvest Model (KOHM)

7-9. Estimates of Age 3 Klamath fall chinook salmon before and after fishing seasons from 1985-1991

7-10. Estimated difference in sustained yield of Oregon coho salmon in response to impaired freshwater habitat conditions and years of poor ocean conditions

7-11. Harvest and biomass estimates for Pacific sardines from 1932-1990 showing near extinction

7-12. Declines of northern anchovy from 1965-1990

8-1. Total chinook salmon yearling and fingerling output from Trinity River and Iron Gate hatcheries in millions, 1978-1988

8-2. Percent survival of fingerling release groups to Age 2 from Trinity River and Iron Gate Hatcheries from 1979-88

10-1. Estimated juvenile steelhead of all age classes, sampled by electroshocking in Big Creek, upper Hayfork Creek, Rusch Creek, Salt Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, 1985-1990

10-2. Trinity River Task Force flow chart for tributary rehabilitation

10-3. Juvenile steelhead distribution by age class in pools, riffles, and runs in all reaches of Big French Creek

11-1. Twenty-one sub-basins of the South Fork Trinity River watershed used for watershed inventories

List of Plates

1 Habitat typing and watershed assessments completed for sub-basins of the South Fork Trinity River basin as of January 1993 pocket

2 Stream channel and watershed conditions in sub-basins of the South Fork Trinity River pocket

3 In-stream structures in sub-basins of the South Fork Trinity River watershed as of 1992 pocket