Bibliography Background About KRIS

LAND USES ON HUMBOLDT BAY TRIBUTARIES (Salmon Creek, Elk River, Freshwater Creek and Jacoby Creek)

Information compiled by Susie Van Kirk February 1998

Newspaper References

Arcata Union (AU) Arcata, 1886-1995
Daily Humboldt Times (DHT) Eureka, 1874-1967 [Times Standard]
Daily Times-Telephone (DTT) Eureka, [DHT during 1880s]
Ferndale Enterprise (FE) Ferndale, 1878-present
Humboldt Standard (HS) Eureka, 1876-1967
Humboldt Times (HT) Eureka, 1854-1967 [Times Standard]
Northern Advocate (NA) Blue Lake Advocate, 1888-1969
Weekly Humboldt Times (WHT) Eureka [HT after daily started]
Weekly Times-Telephone (WTT) Eureka [weekly HT during 1880s]



HT (16 Feb. 1861) Freshet--The streams hereabouts have been higher during the week than at any time this winter and some as high as ever before known...The small streams putting into the Bay were all swollen bank full and we learn that some logs were carried away up Fresh Water Slough...

HT (22 Dec. 1866) High Water--The heavy rains that have fallen the week have raised the water in the rivers and streams in this vicinity so that they have run bank full.  This has afforded the loggers a fine opportunity to get their logs out into tide water and convenient to market.  We understand there are several millions of feet of logs that have been waiting a rise of the water in the streams putting into the bay.

HT (6 Feb. 1869) A Good Supply of Logs--The late heavy rains have raised the streams emptying into the bay sufficiently to enable the loggers and mill owners to get nearly all their logs down to tide water.  We understand that the quantity that is now within reach when wanted will aggregate many millions feet.  The logs from Elk river, more especially the redwood, are said to be the finest ever cut in the vicinity of the bay.  This will insure a lively business in the lumber manufacturing department for some time to come.

HT (22 Jan. 1870) Plenty of Logs--The heavy rain storm of last week raised the water in Elk River, Fresh Water and other streams sufficiently to enable the loggers to get down to tide water a good proportion of their logs laying well up those streams.  We have heard the quantity got down stated at from nine to ten millions of feet.

HT (26 Feb. 1870) High Water--The heavy rains that have fallen during the week have raised the waters in the rivers and creeks in this vicinity almost to freshet height.  Eel River and the approaches to it have been impassable the greater portion of the time since Sunday last and the creeks and sloughs emptying into the Bay have been running bank full, thereby enabling the loggers to run a vast quantity of logs to tide water or to points where they will be available at any time.

HT (4 Feb. 1871) Supply of Logs--The rains of Thursday and Friday of last week raised the water in Elk River sufficiently to enable the loggers to drive to tide water a large portion of the logs along that stream.  We understand that about twelve million feet were driven into the booms.

HT (25 Feb. 1871) High Water--The rains of the forepart of the week raised the streams in the county higher than any point reached either last winter or this.  Immense quantities of drift were swept down them by the flood of water...

HT (8 April 1871) A Freshet--The heavy rain storm of last Tuesday and Wednesday came nearer producing a freshet than any rainfall which has preceded it this winter.  Eel River, Elk River and Freshwater were higher than at any time since the rainy season commenced.  Other smaller streams were also much swollen...

HT (23 Dec. 1871) Awaiting High Water--Although we have had considerable rain, sufficient has not fallen at one time to raise the water in the streams emptying into the bay so that our millmen and loggers could drive the logs to tide water.  There are in Elk river and on its banks fully one hundred thousand dollars worth of logs which will require a freshet to get out.  We understand that one of our largest mills has been obliged to shut down for want of logs.

HT (30 Dec. 1871) High Water in Elk River--The heavy rain on Wednesday night produced a sufficient rise of water in Elk river to enable the loggers on that stream to drive a large portion of their logs to tide water.  The river is now full for a distance of three miles above the boom near the crossing.  It is said that the quantity of logs now in the river and yet to drive will reach twenty million feet.  The mills drawing their supply from this river will now have logs sufficient to do them for a considerable time.

WHT (27 April 1872) A Splendid Picture--A few days since, the choppers on Mr. Richard Allard's logging claim on Elk River were engaged in felling a huge redwood tree.  After the under scarf had been cut, it was suggested to have a photograph of the tree taken.  Accordingly, Mr. Allard came to town, secured the service of Mr. A.P. Flaglor, photograph artist of this place, for that purpose.  When everything was in readiness, ten persons--eight gentlemen and two ladies--took seats within the scarf and the whole group were then photographed.  Mr. Flaglor was eminently successful, obtaining an excellent picture of the immense forest giant, and an intelligible likeness of the group that were seated within the severed trunk.  The diameter of the tree at the base of the scarf is nineteen feet.  At least three more persons could have found comfortable seat room with the group.  Upon the whole this picture according to our notion, is one of rare beauty and excellence.

HT (8 Feb. 1873) Immense--We understand that the quantity of logs in and on the banks of Elk River, awaiting high water in that stream, aggregates between twenty-six and twenty-seven million feet.

HT (24 Jan. 1874) Run of Logs--The freshet in Elk River has set the logs in that stream moving and a large force of men is engaged in driving them to tide water.  Seven million feet had been run at the latest accounts received from there last evening.

HT (24 Jan. 1874) The Millmen and Loggers Jubilant--Elk River and its tributaries have been the scene of busy times within the last forty-eight hours.  The high waters in those streams has set the logs in their beds moving and the work of driving them, breaking jams, etc. has kept a large force busily employed during this time.  Up to yesterday afternoon, twelve million feet of logs had been brought to tide water.  All of those belonging to D.R. Jones & Co., Ed Barnard, Jerry Inman and most of Richard Allard's had been got down and it was expected that Warren Moore's would be brought down during the afternoon and evening.

HT (7 Feb. 1874) Freshet in Freshwater--The rains of Sunday and Monday raised the water in Freshwater to a height never before equalled.  All the logs in the slough were driven yesterday from the highest point down and it is stated by good authority that there are two million and a half feet of logs ready for rafting.  The sudden rising of the water broke the boom at the mouth of the slough and about two hundred logs belonging to Charles Hill escaped, but from the latest reports we hear that nearly all of them have been recovered.

WHT (28 Nov. 1874) From Wednesday's Daily. Lively Times on Elk River--Elk river is said to be higher than at any time since 1859, so early in this season.  A visitor to D.R. Jones & Co.'s claim reports great success in running logs yesterday afternoon.  About five hundred thousand feet were set adrift at one time and went dashing down toward tide water.  We are told that logs have come down that the freshets of last winter failed to move.  We understand that at dark last evening from ten to twelve million feet of logs had reached tide water during the present freshet.

FE (28 Nov. 1874) Timber Resources of Humboldt County--...The total amount of timber on the tracts above mentioned foots up some 105,000 acres which will average about 200,000 feet per acre; divided as follows: On Freshwater, 40,000 acres; Ryan's Slough, 15,000 acres; Jacoby Creek, 20,000 acres; and Arcata timber, 30,000 acres.  This is decidedly the most available timber we have, and will be the chief source of supply for years to come.  It is the backbone of Eureka's prosperity, and is a visible guarantee of her glorious future...the timber referred to lies near tide-water;...the lands are owned by many different parties;...the facilities for getting logs into the bay are much greater than at any other point; and the timber, as a whole, is of a finer quality, causing it to be more sought after.  There is to be a road constructed through the Freshwater track, which will open up and develop all its timber land, and offer greater facilities for putting logs into the bay than have ever been offered heretofore...The lands on Ryan's Slough are in pretty much the same condition, except that a road is unnecessary, as logs can be run to tide-water in the Slough.  The Jacoby Creek timber is likewise easy of access.  With the construction of two small dams or water gates, in the proper places, and at a small expense--for the creek is narrow--logs can be run from miles up the creek which would afford an ample outlet for all the timber on the tract...

WHT (5 Dec. 1874) From Saturday's Daily. The Quantity--We learn from good authority that not far from eighteen million feet of logs were run to tide water or where they can be handled at anytime, during the late high water.  About six million of these came down Freshwater and twelve million down Elk River.

WHT (4 Dec. 1875) From Thursday's Daily. High Water--Reports from all directions state that the rivers have overflowed and the water covers all the bottom land...Allen Look says that Elk River is over its banks and the water is almost level with the road.  A number of fields are completely under water...

DHT (4 March 1876) Driving Logs--The heavy rains of Wednesday and Thursday raised the water in Elk River so as to enable those having logs therein to drive them to tide water.  We understand the loggers on that stream were busily engaged yesterday.

WHT (13 Jan. 1877) From Wednesday's Daily. Clearing Out--D.R. Jones & Co. have a crew of men at work clearing the sunken logs from Elk river.  This has been made absolutely necessary by the continued dry weather, the water in the stream being so low that logs would scarcely float at high tide.

WHT (10 Feb. 1877) From Sunday's Daily. Run of Logs--There have been about 2,000,000 feet of logs run down Elk river within the last three days.  There are about 25,000,000 more waiting for high water.

WHT (3 March 1877) From Friday's Daily. Run of Logs--It was expected yesterday that the recent rain would raise the water in Elk River sufficiently to bring down all the logs.  In the morning a large number of men went down to the river to assist "driving"...Last evening the men returned from the river announcing the fact that the logs were all down from North Fork, South Fork, Main Fork and everywhere else and every one was jubilant.  Before the winter fairly set in there were over twenty-five million feet of logs in Elk river and now they are all down to tide water.  That amount of timber will supply the mills for some time to come.

WHT (2 June 1877) From Tuesday's Daily. Nice Saw Logs--...a tree was felled last week on Warren Moore's claim on the North Fork of Elk River that measured sixty-three feet in circumfrence at the butt, which would make the tree about twenty-one feet in diameter...

DHT (20 Dec. 1877) Logs--The heavy rain of Sunday night and Monday raised the water in the several streams in this county.  In Elk river about one million feet of logs came down to tide water and almost every landing was started.  Loggers tell us that had the rain continued about two hours longer it would have entirely cleared the South Fork and main Elk river.

WHT (26 Jan. 1878) Colored--The waters of the bay were very much colored yesterday from the muddy water of Mad River and Freshwater Slough. [A canal diverted Mad River into the Bay.]

WHT (9 Feb. 1878) From Sunday's Daily. Farm Damaged--We understand that the farm of Mr. J.O. Showers of Elk River was considerably damaged by the recent freshet in that stream.  Considerable portions of his plowed lands have been stripped of the soil by the swift current to the depth it had been loosed by the plow.  Other portions have been covered by saw logs and drift deposited to such an extent that it is difficult to reach it.  The land thus damaged is some of the best on his farm.  We also learn that the banks of that stream in that locality have been badly washed and that the river there is nearly twice the width it was a few years ago.

WHT (7 Dec. 1878) Timber Resources--In the series of articles, now appearing in the "Bulletin," written by Mr. A.T. Hawley, the timber resources of Humboldt County are considered...The belt of timber which skirts the bay shows the effect of over twenty years cutting and culling.  The feasibility of rafting on Eel and Mad rivers, to such an extent as to keep up the supply for the mills already built, has not been fully established.  Elk River, one of the best streams for rafting purposes in the county, has become somewhat impaired as to usefulness by sunken logs.  These, however, are being removed, but at its best, Elk River is only one source of supply.  It has come to be pretty well understood by mill men that railroads will have to be resorted to to keep up the supply of logs.  Something has already been done in that direction.

WHT (14 Dec. 1878) Our Railroad Interests--[A.T. Hawley describes the only three railroads in the county]...This company [South Bay Railroad] represents fifteen thousand acres of land and have built a road four and a half miles long, terminating at tide water on a slough running into South Bay...

DHT (19 Jan. 1879) Plenty of Logs--Yesterday morning the jam of logs in Salmon Creek was broken and Carson's mill has all the logs it can use for some time to come.  The creek has three dams in it and the jam was just below the upper dam.  The rains had filled the dam and a good head of water being had, the dam was broken and the logs floated down so that they can be handled at any time.  We understand there were sixteen hundred logs in the dam.

DHT (5 March 1879) Freshet--The steady rains of Sunday and yesterday brought the required amount of water and the different streams in the county were booming.  In Elk River there was plenty of water and we understand that about fifteen million feet of logs were brought down out of the main river to tide water.  Freshwater and Ryan's slough were running full and logs were coming down lively at last reports.

DHT (6 March 1879) Rain--For the past two months the general cry has been for rain, only enough rain to cause a freshet and bring the logs down...The rivers yesterday were running bank full and the loggers had all they could attend to.  The number of feet of logs brought down by the freshet is estimated at forty million.

DHT (9 March 1879) Logs Down--The heavy rain of Friday night and yesterday had the desired effect of raising the water in Elk River and we understand that the logs in both forks came down.
There is now a solid line of logs in Elk River from the bridge up the stream a distance of nearly eight miles, containing in the neighborhood of nearly fifty million feet.

WHT (27 March 1880) Railroad Up Freshwater--We have heard considerable talk during the past two weeks of a railroad that was to be built up Freshwater to tap the vast body of redwood timber that lays along that stream...We called upon Mr. J.W. Henderson...for the purpose of making inquiry.  Mr. Henderson at once told us that such a project was being seriously considered, but no definite arrangements had been made as yet.  The company that has the matter under consideration is the South Bay Railroad Company of which Mr. Henderson is Superintendent.  It is proposed to move the road and rolling stock that is now at Salmon Creek to Freshwater.  The road will be built from tide water to a point up the stream about five miles.  The cost of the same will be about $15,000 per mile...

The company in question have two other projects under consideration should this one fail.  One is to build a road on Little River to remove the body of timber on that stream...The other project is to extend the present road of the South Bay Railroad Company up the Eel River Valley to the Van Duzen, tunneling through the Bluff...

One thing is certain, the company proposes to erect a road to some point where there is a large body of timber.  The timber along the streams is being thinned out and the plan of cutting the timber, rolling it into the beds of the rivers, and waiting for Pluvius to set his water works in motion and float them down to tide water does not work as well as it did years ago, and cannot be relied upon...

DHT (30 March 1880) Elk River, Ed. Times--The freshet before this last one on Elk River damaged my farm and injured me to a considerable extent.  I lost three tons of grain, about five tons of hay and had two large fat hogs drowned.  I never said a word about it, but went up to the bank of the river after the freshet to see how the bank looked and found it washed away in a good many places.  I went to Mr. Carson and asked him to have the damage made good and the answer I got was that there would be no more freshets this spring...When the time came I went to work putting in the crop.  I had planted twenty-five acres in oats, five in peas, and one in potatoes, all of which...are from one to two feet under water.  All this is the result of booms and dams and because the proper parties are afraid of spending a little money to keep the banks in repair...It looks by the way they are working it that they want to run every farmer on Elk River out of it...J.K. Shannahan.  

DHT (2 April 1880) Elk River--Ed Times: Here I am at 12 o'clock noon, April 1st, 1880, on my farm on Elk River with two feet of water all over it, all on account of booms and dams, and the neglect of keeping the banks of that river in repair.  I represent a committee of one for all the farmers on Elk River, Humboldt county, to make our complaint to Hon. P.H. Ryan and Hon. O.L. Stoddard to see if they can have passed a law prohibiting the millmen from forcing the farmers and their families off their homesteads on Elk River.  It is next to impossible to get any redress or damages, for any damage that the river, the logs or the freshet may do they may give damages to a few for some reason or other, in order to freeze the rest out.  In a few years, or say months.  As I have said before they have forzen out two-thirds already, I could go further and say all are gone, but me, since logging was commenced on Elk River.  Mind you, it is all on account of occupying the river, keeping logs in for five years to my knowledge until now there is no river.  It is all over the farms, near the old riverbed, whenever there is water enough to float a log.  John K. Shannahan.

DHT (4 April 1880) Eureka, Eds Daily Times: Much has been said about Elk River--about the booms and logs and farms there.  And is it any wonder?  At the present time Elk River valley is in a worse condition than ever before.  When I came to be an owner of some land on Elk River about four years ago the banks of that stream on the back line of my land were about sixteen feet deep, while today they are no more than nine feet deep.  What is the cause of this great change if the boom and the logs placed in the river are not?  Any man who thinks he can make me believe that these booms and logs have not been the cause, I will say in a very few words, he is a fool.
        ...Why is it that certain men have been given a priviledge to boom Elk River?...

If these men can boom Elk River and not become responsible for the damage they may occasion by so doing, it may be very fine for them, but I can assure you it is not fine for others...

By the first freshet in December, 1879, most of my improvements on my land were washed out.  There were five inches of water in my house, my stable and horses were afloat, and I lost some seven tons of carrots and two thousand feet of lumber--and don't forget that the booms and logs in the river were the cause of it.  Then I made up my mind to sell out to these gentlemen for something---and the answer I received to my offer from D.R. Jones was that he had done no damage; and H.H. Buhne tells me that I had no business to buy the place...B. Glatt

WHT (17 April 1880) The Freshwater Railroad--A short time ago, the Times informed its readers on the information obtained from Mr. J.W. Henderson that the South Bay Railroad Company were seriously considering the project of building a railroad from tide water near the mouth of Freshwater Slough to a point five miles up that stream for logging purposes...
        Mr. Henderson yesterday informed us that nearly all the necessary arrangements had now been made...
        If all goes well a working force will be put on in about ten days and the work pushed forward rapidly so that trains will be running by the first of July.  It is expected that employment will be given to from three to five hundred men.  The road will be commenced at a point on the marsh near the mouth of the slough, where steamers and boats can land at any stage of the tide, and continue up the slough five miles for the present and eventually be extended five miles further.  This road will tap about twenty thousand acres of the finest redwood timber in the county, and easy connection can be made with other bodies of timber to furnish a supply for the mills for many years to come.  The construction of the road will place in circulation a large amount of money, give employment to many men and when completed will be of great benefit to this city.

WHT (10 July 1880) The Freshwater Railroad--Yesterday morning we took occasion to visit Freshwater and inspect the new railroad that is now in the course of construction, and being rapidly pushed forward to completion.  We met Mr. J.W. Henderson, the gentlemanly Superintendent, who gave us the necessary points and took us over the road.  The project is being put forward by the South Bay Railroad and Land Company, the principal owners being Capt. H.H. Buhne, D.R. Jones, J.W. Henderson and the Paige Bros.  The object of the road is to bring into market the body of redwood timber that grows along Freshwater Slough for miles and miles, and covering thousands of acres of land.  Considerable logging has been done on this stream in years past, the logs being cut, dumped into the river bed, and there allowed to remain until such a time as old Pluvius opened his flood gates and furnished water sufficient to float the logs down to tide water, where they could be arranged in rafts and then towed down to the mills to be cut up into lumber.  But this course was necessarily slow and expensive, and if the aforesaid Pluvius was anyway sparing of his dispensation, the logs would remain in the stream for two and perhps three years...The railroad naturally was taken into consideration, the experiment tried, proved successful and a new era is about to dawn in the lumber industry...The road when completed will be about six miles in length...

WHT (7 Aug. 1880) Freshwater RR--[from the Leader]...A good many logs were sent down this past week, but they have not got fairly started yet, as the track is somewhat rough in places...It is certainly a goodly sight to witness a train of cars, loaded with redwood logs and drawn by a locomotive at a good rate of speed, puffing through the valley, and across the marsh to tide water.  There are three ox teams engaged in hauling logs to the landing prepared for them, and from where they are rolled upon the cars and taken away...there must be nearly, if not quite, a hundred and fifty men employed on Freshwater this summer in connection with the railroad... 

DHT (28 Dec. 1880) The Storm--The heavy rain had the beneficial effect of bringing many logs out of the streams.  Saturday afternoon 1,500,000 feet of logs came down Elk river...

WHT (18 June 1881) Lumber--Considerable improvement is noted in the lumber market; indeed, as compared with the same month last year, we may speak of it as a boom...Five mills are running, and the log supply is sufficient for present events, five rafts--about 1,200,000 feet in all--having been brought up from Elk River during the prevailing high tides.  The bar at the mouth of the stream is receding somewhat, but the use of a dredger is sorely needed...

WHT (6 Aug. 1881) Steam Power--...Mr. Geo D. Gray, of the Milford Land & Lumber Company has recently brought up from San Francisco and set to work on the company's logging claim at Salmon Creek, a steam logging machine that bids fair to change very considerably our system of logging...It has performed its work to perfection from the first and is now a "regular hand" in the Salmon Creek woods.  The machine is designed to be used in blocking out roads, hauling out of the way all waste material and hauling logs into the roads and coupling them together ready for the ox team to take away.  It consists of an upright boiler and engine...The machine or its application is the invention of Messrs. Dolbeer & Carson, and has already more than realized their greatest expectations.  It is at work in the woods at Salmon Creek, where it can be seen by anyone who is anxious enough to visit the camp.

DHT (29 Dec. 1881) Logs Brought to Tide Water--The freshet of Monday night in the several streams had the effect of bringing down to tide water a large number of logs many of which have been lying in the beds of the streams for several years...Elk river began to feel the effect of the storm Monday night and the next morning at four o'clock logs commenced to run...The river is a solid jam of logs up to Shanahan's and it is estimated by some that there are 15,000,000 feet in the jam, but others do not place the figure above 8,000,000...According to calculations there should be in the river and both forks about 25,000,000 feet.  About 3,000,000 feet came down Ryan's slough.  These belong to the Occidental mill and that company has about 2,000,000 feet in Elk River, which will give them a supply that will last for several months.

WHT (7 Jan. 1882) A mill will be built by Dolbeer & Carson near the Washington Claim on the Arcata road for the manufacture of shingles and staves.

WHT (18 March 1882) Logging on Freshwater--Preparations are being made to carry on logging on Freshwater on an extensive scale this summer.  Seven teams will be put in the woods, and three of Dolbeer's patent logging machines will be put in operation.  This will give employment to about one hundred and fifty men.  It is expected that about twenty million feet of logs will be sent down to tide water.
        To accommodate this increase, and to be able to handle all the logs from the stream, the Humboldt Logging R.R. Co. will expend a large sum of money and put the road in complete working order at the earliest possible moment.  The road will be extended about a half mile, and there may be a branch road up one of the gulches to get out the available timber...
        Operations will be carried out on a large scale and there will be work for a large number of men.  There is a scarcity of logs and every effort will be made to get in a sufficient quantity to answer all purposes...

WHT (22 April 1882) Logging by Steam, The Freshwater Railroad, Improvements, Present and Prospective--The Freshwater Railroad--or, to speak properly, the Humboldt Logging Railroad company, is the principal enterprise of the kind in the county, and has done much in the past two years toward solving the problem of how to supply the growing demand for redwood lumber.  The old method of "running" logs has of necessity given place to the steam car, and the great bulk of the timber now standing will in all probability find its way to the mills and to market by this means.  Mill men generally recognize this fact, and are providing for the future by building railroads, either for steam or horse-power, to convey logs from the lumber camps to tide water, and then by rafts to the mills in this city, or to haul the lumber cut in the woods and lightered to deep water for shipment.  The Freshwater road, now the property of Buhne, Jones & Kentfield, has cost a good deal of money, but has been paying property nevertheless, and bids fair to become a bonanza to its enterprising owners in the future.  A visit to Freshwater and a tour of inspection of the road and other property pertaining to it, would convince even a casual observer that there is something in it.  The road from the landing at the slough to the other extremity, including a short branch, is about seven miles in length.  It is equipped with one locomotive and fourteen cars for the transportation of the mammoth logs from the hillsides and gulches to tide-water.  With these facilities about fourteen million feet of logs were taken out last season, and with the improvements now going on the amount will be increased to twenty or twenty-one million feet.  The company now has in course of construction ten new cars, which will be ready about a month hence, by which time the engine now building in San Francisco will arrive ready for work, and the summer's campaign will begin in earnest.  The new engine, we understand, will be larger than the one now in use on the road, and the two will make a very effective team.
        At the lower landing there is a good deal of work to be done to put things in working order--indeed, it is all to be done before the landing can be used.  The "landing" is the point on the slough where the logs are rolled from the cars into the water, whence they are rafted to the mills in this city.  The "landing" is made by heavily piling the bank of the slough and running an incline of logs from the height of the cars toward the water.  The track runs close alongside this landing, and the huge logs are rolled from the flat cars upon the incline, from which they shoot into the water below followed by a great splash and commotion.  This lower landing, as it is called (there is another landing half a mile above) has completely collapsed, and is now in the hands of an undertaker, so to speak.  James Simpson has a contract to clear up the wreck and make a new landing, on a somehwat different plan, which it is believed, will stand the immense strain to which the place is subjected.  One of Dolbeer's patent donkeys is being used to "snake out" the wreck, for which it is admirably adapted.  When this is done the work of rebuilding will begin, the pile driver being already at the scene of action, and this part of the work will be finished by the time the other improvements are completed.
        That part of the road which runs over the marsh is in good condition, but some of the curves and grades in the timber will be straightened and improved with the view of increasing the speed and reducing the wear and tear of the road and rolling stock.  The light iron will all be replaced with fifty-pound rails, side tracks will be put in, and other changes made to facilitate the business of the road.  A large crew of men are at present replacing the bridge, near the upper end of the road, carried away by the high water last winter.  This will soon be in readiness, and in another month all the camps will be in full blast and the road will be running to its full capacity.  The company has one of the Dolbeer donkeys at work in the woods, which, like all of them now in use, gives entire satisfaction.  The one in temporary use at the landing will be sent to the woods as soon as its present occupation is gone.  These steam donkeys should be seen at work to be appreciated.  They work where ox teams cannot work, are quicker, and much more effective.  But the bull-puncher will always find a place in the logging camp, and his ringing voice be heard through the sombre redwoods, for the ox team seems indispensable, notwithstanding its new rival.
        While all other applicances for rapidity and ease of handling the great logs have been studied and improved from time to time, the method of leading has not been forgotten.  At present the logs are rolled from the landings in the camps upon the cars by means of jack-screws.  The process is slow and laborious, and the probability is that some machine for the purpose will be introduced on the Freshwater road within the year--some adapation of the "donkey" above spoken of.  There are already two appliances for this purpose, one on Carson's road at Jacoby creek, and one on the Flannigan-Brosnan road.  But some improvement on these is in contemplation.
        The body of timber which the Freshwater road taps is very large, and with the increased facilities for securing it, the danger of scarcity of logs will diminish.  With the improvements spoken of the supply will be increased by eight million.  Besides this, it is probable that the same company will put in two teams on Elk river.  But Freshwater will furnish the great bulk of the timber for this company for some years to come.

WHT (29 July 1882) New Logging Machine--For a month past Lanaigan at the foundry has been engaged in building one of Dolbeer's patent logging engines for Peter McGeorge for use in the Freshwater woods...

DHT (23 Aug. 1882) Railroad to Elk River--Another move is about to be made to tap a large body of redwood timber by means of a railroad...Along the banks of the river and its tributaries there is some of the finest bodies of timber to be found on the whole coast.  Extensive logging operations have been carried on in that section in years past, but at considerable cost and for the last few years very little has been done.  The modus operandi was the primitive method, to roll the logs into the bed of the stream, form "jams," and then wait for Pluvius to send down his dispensation in the way of bountiful showers and float the valuable timber down to tide water, where it could then be made up into rafts and sent to the mills.  The capacity of the river is estimated at from six to ten million feet.  Some years there have been twenty to thirty million put in and the consequence was that only a portion could be handled, the balance being strewn along on the bars and banks of the river for miles.  Then the necessary amount of water for driving was not always forthcoming and the business became unprofitable and operations to any large extent ceased.  On this stream and its tributaries there are about 20,000 acres of timber and the only sure means of getting it to market is by means of a railroad..A move is now being made in that direction and we hear the names of C.G. Stafford of this city and N.H. Falk of Arcata connected with the enterprise...It is the intention to build a narrow gauge road from deep water at Bucksport to the timber for the purpose of carrying lumber, small mills to be built in the woods...

DHT (29 Sept. 1882) Elk River Railroad--Articles of Incorporation were filed Wednesday...of the Elk River Railroad Company.  The purpose of the company is to operate a narrow gauge road with 25-pound "T" rails, from a point on Humboldt Bay at the town of Bucksport, running by the most practicable route to the mouth of a creek on Elk river, known as McLoud's creek, a tributary of the south fork of Elk river and to be a common carried of freight and passengers.  The estimated length is eight miles... 

DHT (11 Oct. 1882) The Storm--...In all the logging camps, large crews of men were at work and extra efforts were being put forth to get down to market before the rains set in, a sufficient quantity of logs to enable the mills to manufacture lumber all winter and carry them through the time when work could be resumed in the spring.  This storm has been in progress two short weeks, yet during that time all the logging claims have been shut down and it is estimated that the supply of logs will run 10,000,000 feet short of the amount that would have been placed in the streams and at the landings had the weather remained fair...

WT-T (6 March 1886) Work will be commenced on the Elk River Railroad at an early day.  The road is graded to the mill and the ties are on the ground.

WH-T (18 Nov. 1882) [Articles of Incorporation for Eel River and Eureka Railroad, stockholders: W.J. Sweasey, Wm. Carson, J.W. Henderson, H.H. Buhne, Joe Russ, John Vance and A.W. Randall; railroad to run from a point on east line of 1N2E, at or near the place where said line crosses the Van Duzen river to city of Eureka...passing through Table Bluff and the valley of Van Duzen, Yager and Eel rivers--40 miles; John Vance president]

WT-T (3 Feb. 1883) [contract let for grading first section of ER&ERR from Fields Landing to Salmon Creek]

DT-T (8 Feb. 1883) Active operations will soon commence in the lumbering claims on Jacoby Creek.  A good working force is already employed in Carson's and Gannon's claims, but the number of workmen will be doubled, a month or two hence.

DT-T (21 Feb. 1883) Yesterday morning at 10 o'clock, ground was broken for the Eel River and Eureka railroad at a point near the Salmon Creek hotel.  There are about one hundred Chinamen at work and the contractors, Osborne & Lemmon, have two months in which to complete the grade to the Fields farm.  Proposals for constructing the tunnel and the next five miles of the road will be called for next week.

DT-T (14 April 1883) The Eureka and Eel river railroad company are pushing their road along as fast as contracts can be let and men be set to work. The contract for building their wharf at Field's landing has been let to H.M. Mercer of this city, who will proceed with the work at once.  The wharf will be 300 by 300 feet and will be connected with the road bed by a piece of trestle work 400 feet in length...Three miles of the road are graded and the company expects to have the grade from Salmon creek to the landing completed by the 10th of next month.  Rails and a locomotive have been ordered and cars for work in the tunnel, which the company has concluded to build without contracting.

DT-T (1 May 1883) The Dolbeer patent logging machine which rested on F street a day or two...started on its way to Russ & Co.'s logging camp on Elk river slough yesterday afternoon.  The propelling power was three span of mules and five yoke of oxen...

DT-T (24 June 1883) McKay & Co. RR--...McKay & Co., owners of the Occidental mill, had determined to build a railroad from tide water along Ryan's slough to a point opening up their timber...The present grade is two miles long, extending from the county bridge to the dam, just above the old Connick camp...

DT-T (3 June 1884) California Redwood Company, The Magnitude of its Operations Briefly Reviewed--It is not yet a year since the corporation known as the California Redwood Company made its immense purchase of standing timber, mills, railroads, sailing vessels, steam tugs, etc. in Humboldt county.  The original investment in connection with the outlays in building, repairs, and in other ways, to the present date approximate closely to a million and a half dollars, and at least one-third as much more will be expended in accordance with the Company's intention of doing the most extensive lumber business on the Pacific Coast...the Company owns two of the largest and best-appointed mills on Humboldt Bay with the intention (machinery already on the ground) of building a third one here, and another lumber mill at Trinidad.  At the last-named place the Company also owns one of the best equipped shingle mills in the county.  Another of equally great capacity is now being erected at the terminus of the Freshwater railroad.
        The operations in the last-named section are on a most extensive scale.  From the landing (terminus of road) to the several logging camps four locomotive engines of an average of 20-odd tons each, and 20 patent steam donkeys will be in service before the close of the present month.  This machinery alone, including rolling stock and necessary working tackle, have involved an outlay of $100,000.  In handling this machinery and moving stock the services of 100 men are required.  In the Freshwater section a week ago 350 white laborers and about 100 Chinamen (the latter in railroad grading) were employed.  This number will be greatly increased before the close of the present year...The railroad building and logging operations on Elk River at the present time call for the services of nearly 200 more.  It is particularly in regard to the operations on the Freshwater railroad and in the forests on that stream and its branches that we wish to refer at this time...
        The steamer Annie, belonging to the Company, makes daily, or at least tri-weekly trips to the railroad landing on Freshwater Slough.  This is required to keep the camps, nine in number--six in the logging camps, the railroad, round house and landing camps--supplied with the necessities of life.  Laborers must be served in this respect, and everything moves with admirable precision.  At the landing on the marsh a new branch road one-half of a mile in length, a new landing, a branch road one-third of a mile long to the new shingle mill, and another from the shingle mill switch, are being constructed or are completed.  Leaving the landing, four miles distant, McCready Gulch is reached.  Over this branch locomotives pass daily to supply the necessities of that and a branch known as Horse Gulch.  In those gulches...forces of men are employed in building "landings" preparatory to moving logs as soon as the necessary iron is received to extend the tracks to where they are needed for that purpose.
        The next branch is at Little Freshwater, where three-fourths of a mile of new road has been built for logging purposes during the present year.  On this branch bridges respectively 112, 240 and 378 feet long are in use.  Next Cloney Gulch branch is reached, which, with the Falls Gulch extension is 1 1/4 miles in length.  In the latter the railroad has been entirely rebuilt this year, in the former nearly so.  On Cloney Gulch 10 bridges have been put in, on Falls Gulch 4, the average length of the 14 being 100 feet each.  On Graham Gulch one mile of new road has been built this year, and the repairs to the old portion, which was completely demolished by the Christmas flood, make it better and more durable than before.  On this branch a new bridge 250 feet long over the main creek has been built since the commencement of the year.
        Within a few months 600 feet of trestle, on the most substantial piling, have been built on the main line.  At the Round House, which has accommodations for four locomotives, one of the best turntables in the State has been placed in position, and machine and carpenter shops (where cars are constructed for the Company) built.  There, also, old sidings are being extended and new ones built to accommodate the increasing business of the road.  Cattle guards have been put in along the entire length of the main line and branches, and necessary reservoirs placed in position.  Two pile-drivers were employed for several months, timbers for all the bridging have been got out, and the roads have been thoroughly ballasted.  All this, in connection with the opening of the logging camps, has kept the Superintendent about as busy as a man could be.  Since January 5000 cords of shingle bolts and nearly 2000 cords of wood have been got out by the Company.  Twenty thousand cubic yards of gravel ballast have been used on the roads and 10,000 lineal feet of wharf timber, 3000 piles and an enormous amount of bridge timbers have been cut and landed at distinations.  From the six camps 30,000,000 feet of logs will be moved to tide-water during the present year.

AU (2 April 1886) Harris Mercer has finished driving piles at the mouth of Jacoby Creek for a dam for Flannigan, Brosnan & Co.

AU (18 June 1892) The Harpst and Spring Dike...starts in on the bank of Butcher Slough just beyond the town [Arcata] line and follows the course of the slough as near as possible to the bay.  Here it follows along the edge of the mudflats for a mile or more and crosses Flannigan and Brosnan's railroad at the edge of the bay.  It then goes down along the bay comes up and crosses the big slough by the draw bridge where a flood gate will be put in, and follows down the further bank of the slough to the mouth of Jacoby Creek.  From there it follows up the bank of the creek till it gets out of the reach of the highest tides and there ends...
        The first owner who took up this marsh as swamp and overflowed land never dreamed that this large stretch of country, from Arcata to Jacoby Creek, inhabited only by the festive clam and the busy little crab would some day be pasture for hundreds of cattle...

FE (4 Oct. 1898) Freshwater Reclamation District...extends with little interruption from Freshwater slough on the south to Brainard's Point on the north and from the county road to the bay shore and includes about 1,200 acres.

BLA (19 Nov. 1898) A fish ladder is being put in at the dam at Falk's mill on Elk river.  By this addition the fish will be able to get up the dam into the pond above, thus insuring better sport for the anglers on that part of the stream above the dam.

FE (21 Aug. 1900) The Board of Supervisors last week acted favorably upon the petition of the Z. Russ & Sons Co. for the formation of a reclamation district of 1,585.44 acres of marsh land at the head of South Bay in and about Salmon Creek and Hookton.

DHT (2 July 1901) Notes of Conditions at Freshwater--Alex Graham, proprietor of the hotel at Freshwater Corners, is renovating and improving the appearance of that popular hostelry.

The Freshwater shingle mill of the Excelsior Redwood Company has about six hundred cords of shingle bolts on hand, which it is cutting very fast.  The mill is running ten hours a day and cutting 100,000 shingles, daily average and about 20,000 shakes.  This plant has two Hansen shingle machines and a shake machine.  The bolts are brought to the mill all cut and ready to be fed to the saws.  About twenty men are working in the plant...This shingle mill is one of the most complete plants on the Pacific Coast and is a model one of its kind.

FE (5 July 1901) May Not Dyke South Bay--After having waited for several months with the application of the Z. Russ & Sons Co. for permission to dyke across the sloughs and streams emptying into South Bay, the Board of Harbor Commissioners for Humboldt bay, Monday, finally passed it up to "Uncle Sam" by refusing to grant the permission sought.  This means that the Russ Co., which desires to reclaim the southern end of South Bay by dyking across it, thus closing its main tributaries, Salmon creek and Hookton slough, will have to settle the matter with the War Department of the U.S. government, who have control over the navigable waters of the State.  From the letter received from the War Department by the Harbor Commissioners, it would appear that the closing of the streams referred to is expressly prohibited by the government and it looks now as if the Russ Co., in order to reclaim the land, will have to dyke along the banks of these sloughs.--Standard.

FE (4 April 1902) A petition having been filed with the Secretary of War for permission to reclaim certain salt marsh lands lying in the vicinity of Salmon Creek and Hookton Slough, and a hearing having been ordered thereon, notice is given that W.H. Heuer, Liet. Col. Corps of Engineers, USA, will meet all those interested in said matter in the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce in the City of Eureka, on April 23d, 1902 at 3 o'clock p.m.

FE (29 April 1902) Whether or not the owners of the salt marsh lands in the vicinity of Salmon Creek and Hookton Slough shall be permitted to reclaim the same was the occasion of an interesting meeting at the Chamber of Commerce rooms in Eureka Thursday, when the views of the interested parties were presented in writing to Col. Heuer, who was present.  It will be remembered that a similar request was made of the Board of Harbor Commissioners about a year ago and that it was refused by that body which held that it had no jurisdiction in the case.  The owners, Z. Russ & Sons, A.W. Franks, H.H. Buhne, and Bernard Fitzpatrick, prepared a second petition and forwarded it to the Secretary of War.  This petition continued the same request as made to the Harbor Commissioners.  The matter will not be passed up to the Secretary of War.

FE (6 March 1903) The "Russ dam across Salmon Creek" matter is to go into the courts.  The Harbor Commission has decided to force its removal and the Russ people will test the legality of the order.

FE (6 Nov. 1903) The Board of Harbor Commissioners have postponed action on the Russ Salmon creek reclamation matter until the return of J.H.G. Weaver, Russ & Sons' attorney, from San Francisco.  The Pacific Lumber Co. has filed with the Board a protest against the proposed work.

FE (5 Aug. 1904) Z. Russ and Sons Co. are at work reclaiming the Hookton marsh lands by consent of the War Department.  The Humboldt Bay Harbor Commission objected to the work, and now since it has started, they have written to the State Attorney General to ascertain what powers they have in the premises.

FE (18 Oct. 1907) The Russ Bros. are having quite a number of watering troughs placed in convenient places for their hundreds of head of cattle pasturing on the Salmon Creek marsh.  The water supply comes from a lake up in the hills back of Salmon Creek and is piped over two miles...

FE (10 Jan. 1911) According to a petition which has been filed with the harbor commissioners of Eureka, the Z. Russ & Sons Company wishes to reclaim 403 acres of salt marsh land in sections 5 and 6, township 3 north 1 west and sections 30, 31, and 32 of township 4 north 1 west.  The petition provided that the reclamation is to be effected by the construction of levees in accordance with specifications which have been filed with the board of commissioners and in accordance with a plat of the property concerned which has likewise been filed with the board.  A large amount of reclamation work has already been done in the vicinity of South Bay, the Russ company having reclaimed several hundred acres of land at one time, this land now being in use.  The tract which the company is now desirous of reclaiming adjoins its present property and would form a valuable holding.

HS (28 Nov. 1938) P.L. to Reopen Freshwater Woods--Following a suspension of several months, the Pacific Lumber company will resume operations in the Freshwater woods December 1, was the statement made today by Gordon Manary, logging superintendent of the company...
        Two landings will be in operation, employing shifts of 40 hours a week.  It is estimated that there will be an approximate cut of 200,000 feet daily...

HS (8 June 1940) Eurekan Opens Salmon Creek Logging; Supply Timber for Arcata Sawmill--Contract logging operations on Salmon creek were opened this week by Fred H. Lundblade company.
        Employing more than 25 men, the logging operations will supply about 50,000 feet of redwood timber a day to the Arcata Redwood company, a sawmill owned and operated just north of the White City by Howard Libby and associates.
        The logging operations are being conducted on 640 acres of virgin timber on Salmon creek, said to be one of the finest stands of redwood in the county.  The timber was formerly the property of the Whiting G. Press estate of Chicago, but was recently sold to Fred H. Lundblade by Charles R. Barnum, representative of the Chicago estate.
        Four miles of road were constructed by Lundblade in from the Redwood highway to the tract of timber.

HT (4 Oct. 1940) [Article in Timberman publication regarding Pacific Lumber Company's plans to begin logging in Yager and Jordan creek]...The Pacific Lumber Company with seven headrigs to feed at Scotia requires 400,000 feet of logs a day.  During recent years, these have been supplied from the Freshwater tract and from the Monument creek operations directly across the Eel river from the plant.  Next year will see a complete shift in log supply.  Freshwater operations will be transferred to another development at Jordan creek, south of Scotia.

HS (27 Oct. 1941) New Lumber Camp Being Built at Salmon Creek--A new lumber workers camp is being built in the Salmon Creek area near Fortuna for the Holmes-Eureka Lumber company and will be opened  next summer when the operations at the Van Duzen camp near Carlotta close down...

HT (9 Jan. 1949) Hammond Has Long Logging Setup on Elk--A logging operation with a yearly output of 15,000,000 feet and which is estimated ahead for some 10 years is being conducted by the Hammond Lumber company on the south fork of Elk river.
        Some 2000 acres of prime redwoods comprise the property.  The land is owned by the J.R. Hannify company of San Francisco, who at one time operated the Elk River Mill & Lumber company at Falk on Elk River.
        A crew of men is working at present building additional roads in preparation for extended logging operations later in the season, when some 40 men will be employed in the woods.  Recent logging work has been done at Lake creek, a tributary stream to the south fork of Elk.
        All the Elk river logging output is being hauled to Hammond's mill No. 2 at Bayside.  Six heavy-duty diesel-driven trucks are used on the job when operations are at full scale.  An average day's logging will run at 125,000 board feet, according to Hammond company officials.

HT (13 Feb. 1949) Freshwater--Suburban Life Is Better by Chet Schwarzkopf--...Town Has Lively History.  Probably two of the best informed men on Freshwater's history are Jake Bucholzer, retired Northwestern Pacific railroad conductor, and Harold Coeur, energetic and congenial proprietor of the town's only store.  Harold's father, Alex Coeur, came to Freshwater in 1880 and opened the town's first store, buying the property from Dave McGeorge.  Harold was born in Freshwater and has lived there for most of his life...
        Jake Bucholzer was brought to Freshwater as a child in 1888, when his father went to work on the then Excelsior Lumber company's logging railroad, and has lived there almost continually since.
        According to Jake and Harold, the Excelsior company was the first operator to commence work in the great stand of virgin timber that at one time ran almost to Humboldt bay.  Logging operations commenced around Freshwater corner in 1860.  The huge logs were dragged to Freshwater slough by ox teams and floated down to the company's mill, which was located on Eureka slough not far above the present Highway 101 bridge.
        At that time, the present center of Freshwater was deep in an untouched wilderness--but not for long.  Gradually, the Excelsior loggers worked upstream and in a few years, the first cabins were built around where the Coeur store now stands.  Then, in the latter 1870s, the company started its logging railroad, and the town began to develop in earnest, for the site it occupied was a natural.  In the early '80s, Pat McLain of Eureka built a store and hotel there, and a number of other businesses soon sprang up.  In time, the town boasted of a butcher, barber, tailor, shoemaker, two bowling alleys, two groceries, and a confectionery, as well as a blacksmith shop and three livery stables.  And, needless to say, a number of saloons--at times as high as seven in number--sprang up.
        It was during its hey-day era that Freshwater came to be known as "Wrangletown," although its official district is Garfield and the town's post office was called Freshwater after the stream that flows through it.
        Jake Bucholzer chuckles over the town's former name.  "It was called Wrangletown literally because there was so much fighting in it," he says.  "Mind you, nobody got especially mad, as a rule.  But with as many as 400 men working in the woods and mill, and most of 'em young Irish and 'Blue Nose' Canadians--well, you can figure it out.  We kids in school used to get a great kick out of it.  They'd battle right in the middle of the road.  I've seen as many as three fights going at one time..."
        At the peak of its operating days, the Excelsior company had a mill, railroad, four locomotives, and three logging camps.  Camp foremen were William Hill, George Pinkerton, and William Crowley--all well known names in Humboldt to this day.  Each camp had from 80 to 100 men.  General manager and superintendent was William White, while the Hooper brothers of San Francisco and Dave Evans were owners.  The company was the first to use a "bull donkey" engine instead of oxen in 1882.
        Als, Jake says, the first rock for Humboldt bay's jetty was hauled from the Graham and McCready gulches in Freshwater canyon.  The railroad took it down to Ryan slough where it was put on barges and towed across the bay.
        Then, at the peak of operations, when some 600 men in all were employed, came the panic of 1893.  Except for a few small operations in which they attempted to keep married men empoloyed, Excelsior shut down, never to reopen in full.
        In 1901, The Pacific Lumber Company bought the Excelsior holdings and railroad and later built their shopes and houses in the lower valley near Freshwater corners.  In 1906 Freshwater operations shut down, and did not reopen until 1919.  From that year until 1941, they logged continuously until all the original timber in Freshwater canyon was gone.  Then the company tore up the railroad, and sold their buildings for junk.  And thus finishes the story of Freshwater's logging day--although the Pacific Lumber Company still owns the railroad right-of-way and enormous acreages of second growth timber.  Some of this second growth redwood dates back to 1860, and is now a tall stand.
        "When my father started the store in Freshwater," says Harold Coeur, "there were horse-drawn stages running to Eureka.  And in later years, the town had a couple of bands, which made a lot of music.  Jake played in one of 'em.  About the oldest timer still in town is John Poltera, he was here before my father.  The present Kneeland road was built on logs by George Pinkerton about 1900, but the original one from Arcata road was built about 1892.  There's a lot of Humboldt names associated with Freshwater--Evans, McCready, Howard, Cole, Dillon, Pinkerton, Falk, Bucholzer, Poltera, Renfroe, Foster--just to recall a few offhand.".

HT (20 Feb. 1949) Elk River--One Valley, One Community by Chet Schwarzkopf--Elk river valley is one of the oldest settlements in Humboldt county.  Likewise, it was one of the first redwood areas to be logged in early days.  Ranchers were attracted to it by its deep and rich soil, while lumberman came there because of its accessibility and excellent stands of timber.  Both are still operating in this, one of Humboldt's richest sections.
        The road to Elk river valley leaves Highway 101 hardly more than two miles south of Eureka's city limits.  It is a well paved job that takes you up a gentle grade the length of the lower valley and finally forks to lead respectively to Carson's Camp and the old town of Falk.  Near Falk, another and newer road branches off to the Hammond Lumber company's logging operations...
        Elk river got its name, according to Winfield Wrigley, from the great herds of elk that once pastured in its rich lower levels and lived in the surrounding timber...
        The stream that flows through the valley is different from most.  You see no sand bars and riffles.  It cuts down through rich, dark soil all the way--a soil built up by thousands of years' accumulation of leaf mold.  Even in its upper canyons where it runs swiftly, Elk river's banks are sandless and covered with undergrowth and ferns.  And there may still be found the redwood lily--that shy and exotic blossom which occurs only in the glens and dells of the Redwood Empire's heart.
        Heavy runs of salmon and steelhead formerly came up Elk river to follow its forks into the hills to spawn.  "We used to be able to hear them churning over the riffles across the road from the house at night," says older resident Sherman Stockhoff.  "But no more now.  All of us up here wish the fish and game commission would stock the stream again.  They quit planting young fish over 10 years ago, and the runs have decreased ever since."
        Sherman Stockhoff came to upper Elk river valley in 1902 and as county road foreman for 20 years built most of the roads in that area.  He is retired now on his 138-acre ranch.  "We've had a number of big floods here," he says.  "I remember the one in 1902 when water came up to my door.  The Jim McManus house was threatened, but Mrs. McManus refused to leave it.  They had to pick her up and take her out against her will.  She was a brave lady."
        Mrs. Annie Murray of Eureka is the widow of Judge George Murray, and a sprightly lady in her 80s.  She is a daughter of the pioneer Zane family, who settled in the valley in 1871.  There were no roads, then, and her father, Simeon Zane, had to go to Eureka on horseback to get the mail one a week.
        "The weather got pretty bad at times," Mrs. Murray recounts.   "Father had to life his feet out of the saddle stirrups when the horse wollowed through mud and water.  I used to feel sorry for both the horse and him when they got back.
        Sim Zane, Sr. built the big family home in 1880 and supplied the nearby lumber camps with farm produce for many years.  "They used to haul logs to Elk river slough with oxen, long before the railroad was built," Mrs. Murray says.  "I remember when Dan Newell, Jim Brown, Warren Moore, and D.R. Jones were logging in the valley.  They were there before Noah Falk or Bill Carson."
        Mrs. Murray's newphew, Sim Zane, III, now owns the 300 acres family ranch.  His mother, Catherine Zane, married one of the Zane boys--Frank--in 1900, and taught at the Elk River school in the '90s.  "We intend to keep the ranch in the family for all times," both she and her son say.
        In the lower Elk river valley live the four Lorensen brothers; Ernie, John, Pete and Jake.  Their father came from Denmark in 1880, and first settled in Loleta, where Jake and Pete were born.  In the early 90s the family moved to Elk river, where Ernie, John, and their Cora, now Mrs. Wachter of Eureka, were born.
        Jake Lorensen has lived in the Elk river district all his life, and recalls there were three stores at one time in the center where most of the houses in the valley are grouped.  There are no more now, and even the buildings have been removed.  "Automobiles did it, of course," Jake says.  "The Klemp brothers' store shut down twenty-five years ago, Whelihan's about twenty, while Sellers lasted the longest, closing about 1932.  We never had a post office here.  Mail is delivered by R.F.D. now, but in the old days, it used to be delivered at John Harvey's saloon, down at Elk corners.  John used to sort it out as an accommodation.
        Much of Eureka's water supply, according to Jake Lorensen, formerly came from Elk river.  Fred Bair started the first plant on the old Shanahan ranch.  "It was run by wood-burning steam engines and had the first concrete stack in Humboldt," Jake recounts.  "H.L. Ricks took it over later, and the city bought it about 1907.  They built a new plant right on the river, operated by both electricity and steam.  That ran until the Mad river dam put it out of business.  My brother Pete bought the plant building, and now uses it as a storage warehouse and shop for his ranch."
        Eureka city water no longer is supplied to lower Elk river residents, Jake says.  Everyone now has his own well.
        It is in this part of the valley that many fine dairy farms and stock ranches are operated, some of which date back to earliest days.  The Golden State company operated a creamery there for many years, according to Jake, but discontinued it in 1932 when trucks made one central plant more efficient than scattered small ones.
        "But I remember when Elk river dairymen used to haul their milk to the local creamery by horse and wagon," Jake adds. "We had a good cheese factory here at that time, also."
        There was another creamery at one time on the Nellist ranch, near the former water works, that was run by a water wheel, Jake states.  The wheel, a huge affair some twenty feet in diameter, was taken down only recently.
        Oscar Lord of Eureka at one time was employed in the water works when H.L. Ricks owned it, and later became superintendent of public works when the city of Eureka took over.  Oscar is one of Elk river's pioneers, having first gone to work in the store at Falk as a youngster in 1891, after coming down from Orleans, where his father had settled in the 1860s.
        Holmes Eureka Lumber company, and Harry and George Pinkerton also logged in the lower valley about the turn of the century, according to Oscar, and Coogle MacDonough raised many a fine horse on his ranch at Elk river corners, near highway 101.
        Thanks to the courtesy of Don Metcalf, a visit to the Dolbeer and Carson Lumber company's Eureka office unearths much interesting data on early and present logging activities and the former Elk River Railroad.
        Now known as the Elk River and Bucksport Railroad, the original line was incorporated in 1882.  It was jointly owned by Noah Falk and the Carson interests, and ran to both the north and south forks of Elk river.  The north fork was the Dolbeer and Carson logging site, while Noah Falk built the town of Falk and founded the Elk River Mill and Lumber company on the south fork.  Thus the railroad served both.
        The Carson company started logging in the late 1880s, and moved to Fieldbrook in 1897, according to Don.  After 35 years' work at Fieldbrook, the company shifted operations back to Elk river in 1932, founded Camp Carson with its extensive shops and accommodations, and have been logging there ever since.  It is estimated that there are some twenty years of logging yet to be done on Carson's north fork job.  About 125 men are there now.
        Elk river valley's logging operations were a lusty project in days gone by, according to Winfield Wrigley, who was born at Jones Prairie, near the town of Falk.
        In 1884, when the railroad was completed, Noah H. Falk and Judge C.G. Stafford bought some 9,000 acres of redwoods on Elk river's south fork, and started the Elk River Mill and Lumber company.  The town of Falk was laid out, and mill operations commenced in 1885, according to Wrigley.  Superintendent was Charles Falk.
        In 1920, the Falk mill finished sawing, and the Falks sold their interests to J.R. Hanify of San Francisco, who operated the mill until 1937.  By then all timber adjacent to the mill was gone, and operations were discontinued.
        However, Wrigley says, the Hanify company has kept the Elk River company operating through the sale of logs and timber.  A big tract, comprising some ten years' logging, was sold to Hammond Lumber company recently, and a crew in charge of Marion McFarland is operating there now.  This operation is several miles upstream from the old Falk mill, and logs are hauled to Hammond's Bayside mill by trucks.  The railroad to Falk has been abandoned--but the Camp Carson branch is running full steam.
        Winfield Wrigley, who has been secretary-treasurer and general manager of the Hanify interests in Humboldt since 1922, belongs to one of the best known families in Humboldt.  His father, George Wrigley, started with the Falk interests in 1884 as mill blacksmith, and erected the dam at Falk.  Illness forced his retirement in 1905, whereupon he bought a ranch in Elk river valley and raised some of the finest apples in California, about which his son still recalls with pride.
        James Wrigley, a brother of George, was construction foreman for the Elk River Railroad when it was built.  Two of his daughters, Alice and Ethel, are school teachers--the former at Jones Prairie school, and the latter at Eureka Junior high.
        "The days of the Bluenose loggers are gone," Winfield says.  "But the land they cut over is still held by the Hanify company.  They plan to keep it to grow new timber.
        "Sportsmen may be interested to know," he continues, "that the old dam at Falk is to be opened so that migrating steelhead and salmon again can go upstream on the south fork to spawn."
        Son of another early-timer is Wayne Miller, who lives near Falk.  His father, John Miller, started as a blacksmith with John Vance on Mad river, and later shifted to Elk river, where he worked for George Pinkerton on the Holmes Eureka logging job.
        "The Jones Prairie school at Falk started in 1898," Wayne says.  "I went there as a kid in 1918.  And in 1916, they had two schools, three teachers, and 96 kids attending there.  Falk was a lively town then, believe me.  They had a dance hall above the dam, in a clearing, and everybody had a good time.
        "Remember that old Falk No. 1 locaomotive that now stands at Fort Humboldt, on exhibition?  I used to ride on that as a kid.  That was one of life's biggest moments.  They have a sign on it now that says 'I broke the silence in the Valley of the Giants.'"
        Wayne is clerk of the school board at Jones Prairie, and treasures a school record book that dates to 1884.  "Many a prominent Humboldter--including most of the Wrigleys--learned their three Rs here," he says.  "And here's where Jonas Falk started the record.  He was the school district's first clerk.  I sort of feel like the keeper of a sacred document with this."
        In the early days, they shod oxen like horses, Wayne says.  His father shod many a one for John Vance long before Wayne was born.  "Dad used to lift 'em up in slighs," Wayne states.  "He said he made a special shoe to fit their cloven hooves, and nailed it on the same as he would shoe a horse."
        Another old-time Elk river family are the Christies.  Ivan Christie and his sister, Ruth Johnson, both were born in Falk.  "Oscar Nellist and Jim Gault used to drive the horse stages from Falk to Eureka when I was a small child," Ruth says.  "And Mr. H.A. Kendall, who was librarian in Eureka for so many years, taught his first school at Falk.  But that was before my time."
        There are two grammar schools in Elk river valley.  One is located at Jones Prairie, near Falk, in a surrounding that defies description.  Redwoods tower on the hills in back, and the south fork of Elk river runs within a few yards of it.  Compared to past days, it is quiet, for only ten pupils attend there now.  But what a school it is!  Young America never had a better break.  And kindly Alice Wrigley knows and loves every one of 'em as though they belonged to her family.  You don't see such schools very often.
        The "big" school in the valley is at the lower center, where the stores, creamery and water works used to be.  While this is a suburb now, rather than a town as in the past, nevertheless it is developing more and more, as new residents discover it and buy or build homes.  Elk river school has thirty-two pupils in the first six grades.  Upper grades go to Eureka high school, whose bus calls daily throughout the valley.
        In charge at Elk river school are principal Mrs. John Mitts and assistant Mrs. Howard Carlson.  Here again is a country school true to American tradition.  Many second generation pupils are on its roster.  In fact, principal Mitts' mother attended there...And so you leave Elk river valley, knowing you have seen again a varied cross-section of the best of America--meaning Humboldt.