Bibliography Background About KRIS

Water Quality in Gulf of Maine Atlantic Salmon DPS Watersheds

Dissolved Oxygen 

In a report to the Maine Atlantic Salmon Task Force, Dill et al. (2002) noted that summer dissolved oxygen (D.O.) "below 6 mg/L are not suitable for salmonids". The Maine DEP requires levels of 7 ppm and 75% saturation in all except Class C waters (see Water Quality Standards page) which do not occur in DPS rivers. Among the DPS rivers, only the Sheepscot River has a significant D.O. problem (Arter, 2004; Dill et al., 2002). Maine DEP has found D.O. at seven sites to be so impaired they have been added to the Total Maximum Daily Load list, which recommends them for study and ultimate remediation (Arter, 2004). 

do_sampling_melissa.jpg (143093 bytes)Problem areas include the West Branch, Dyer River, the mainstem Sheepscot River and Trout, Choate, Meadow and Carlton Brooks. The lower Sheepscot basin has the most problem with D.O., which Dill et al. (2002) ascribed to the accumulation of nutrients from the entire watershed. Halsted (2003) found that the lowest flow periods tended to coincide with the lowest dissolved oxygen levels. The fluctuation of dissolved oxygen nocturnally and diurnally, coupled with high chlorophyll-a levels, suggest that algae blooms may be driving D.O. cycles (Arter, 2004). Dissolved oxygen drops at night due to respiration of algae, while values during the day may sometimes be supersaturated due to photosynthesis. Algae blooms, in turn are stimulated by nutrients (see nutrients page) and warm water conditions. Photo Melissa Halsted collects dissolved oxygen data on the Sheepscot River. Photo provided by SVCA.

Biological Oxygen Demand

There is little data is available for biological oxygen demand (BOD) in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon DPS watersheds. Available data are generally for point source discahrges. One location of concern in the Sheepscot River is the Palermo Fish Hatchery where waste is spilled into the upper Sheepscot River just below the outlet of Sheepscot Pond. Maine DEP notes that the reach below the hatchery is listed as Class B, but usually only meets Class C criteria with regard to D.O. (Arter et al., 2004). Maine DEP  (2002) macroinvertebrate studies also indicate that conditions are highly enriched and that water treatment of hatchery effluent may be insufficient.


Arter, B. S., 2004. Sheepscot River Water Quality Monitoring Strategic Plan: A guide for coordinated water quality monitoring efforts in an Atlantic salmon watershed in Maine. Prepared for the Project SHARE: Research and Management Committee. 84 pp. [975kb]

Beland, K., N. Dubé, M. Evers, R. Spencer, S. Thomas, G. Vander Haegen, and E. Baum.1995. Atlantic salmon research addressing issues of concern to the National Marine Fisheries Service and Atlantic Sea Run Salmon Commission. Maine Atlantic Sea Run Salmon Commission Final Project Report NA29FL0131-01.

Chizmas, J. S. 1999. Study of pesticide levels in seven Maine rivers. Maine Board of Pesticides Control. 14 pp [6.2 Mb]

Dill, R., C. Fay, M. Gallagher, D. Kircheis, S. Mierzykowski, M. Whiting, and T. Haines. 2002, Water quality issues as potential limiting factors affecting juvenile Atlantic salmon life stages in Maine rivers. Report to Maine Atlantic Salmon Technical Advisory Committee by the Ad Hoc Committee on Water Quality. Atlantic Salmon Commission. Bangor, ME. 28 pp. [162kb]

Goldman, C.R. and A.J. Horne. 1983. Limnology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York . 464 pp.

Halsted, M., 2002. Effects of stream flow on the stream temperature, E. coli concentrations and dissolved oxygen levels in the West Branch of the Sheepscot River. Alna, ME. 15 pp. [450kb]

Haines, T., and J. Akielaszek. 1984. Effects of acidic precipitation on Atlantic salmon rivers in New England. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS-80/40.18.

Haines, T., S. Norton, J. Kahl, C. Fay, S. Pauwels, and C. Jagoe. 1990. Intensive studies of stream fish populations in Maine. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Acid Deposition, Environmental Monitoring and Quality Assurance, EPA/600/3-90/043.

Kroglund, F., and M. Staurnes. 1999. Water quality requirements of smolting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in limed acid rivers. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 2078-2086.

Magee, J. 2001. Agrochemical monitoring and potential effects on Atlantic salmon in eastern Maine rivers. National Marine Fisheries Service Report.

Maine Department of Agriculture. 2002. Report on activities in Atlantic Salmon Conservation Plan Rivers 2002. Maine Dept. of Ag. 

Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 2002. Water quality concerns and effects from state fish hatchery discharges. Unpublished Report. Augusta, ME.

Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 2004. 2002 Section 303(d) Report: Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Waters. Augusta, ME.

National Research Council, 2003. Atlantic Salmon in Maine. The Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Sciences. National Research Council of the National Academies. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. 260 pp. [3.5Mb]**

Pugh, L., 2002. Analysis summary of water quality monitoring data, 1994-2001. Sheepscot Valley Conservation Association . Alna, ME. 6 pp. [225kb]

Robinson, K. W., J. P. Campbell, and N. A. Jaworski, 2003. Water quality trends in New England rivers during the 20th century. United States Geologic Service. Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4012. Pembroke, NH. 29 pp. [950kb]

State of Maine. (1998). Maine Section 303(d) Waters list.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986. Quality criteria for water 1986: EPA 440/5-86-001. Office of Water Regulations and Standards,  Washington D.C.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2000. Endangered and Threatened Species; Final Endangered Status for a Distinct Population Segment of Anadromous Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in the Gulf of Maine. Federal Register Notice Vol. 65, No. 223 / Friday, November 17, 2000 / Rules and Regulations. Pages 69459-69483 [225kb]

Whiting, M., 2001a. Year 2000 Progress Report for DEP Water Quality Monitoring Plan - Maine Atlantic salmon rivers. Maine DEP, Bangor Regional Office. Bangor, ME. 4 pp. [25kb]

Whiting, M., 2001b. Progress report: A summary of water quality monitoring results from Spring 2001, Maine Atlantic Salmon Rivers Project. Maine DEP, Bangor Regional Office. Bangor, ME. 6 pp. [775kb]**

Whiting, M., 2002. Maine Salmon rivers water quality monitoring progress report for 2002 field season. Maine DEP, Bangor Regional Office. Bangor, ME. 22 pp. [2.25Mb]**

Williams, S. 2002. Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program Annual Report 2002. Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program, Auburn, Maine. 52pp. [7 Mb]

Williams, S. 2003. Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program Annual Report 2002. Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program, Auburn, Maine. 52 pp. [8 Mb]