Bibliography Background About KRIS

KRIS Battle Creek Version 2.0 Info Links

Hydropower Projects in the Battle Creek Basin

The Pacific Gas and Electric Company first began development of hydropower facilities on Battle Creek in 1910. Their hydroelectric system is a clean and efficient way to generate power, but the dams and diversions also decrease passage and carrying capacity for native salmon and steelhead. The Battle Creek Salmon and Steelhead Restoration Plan (Ward and Kier, 1999) found that the stream could support winter run and spring run chinook salmon and could potentially serve as a refugia for these species and studies are now being advanced to modify or remove dams (U.S. BOR, 1999). Photos of hydroelectric facilities come from the California Department of Fish and Game and Thomas R. Payne and Associates. See the KRIS Battle Creek Hydropower Web Page for more information.

Battle Creek Watershed Assessment Aquatic Monitoring Data

Terraqua Inc. (2004) collected data at 50 sites in the Battle Creek watershed in 2001 and 2002 as part of the Battle Creek Watershed Assessment, which used the U.S. Forest Service Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) model (Reynolds, 2001) to facilitate interpretation of results. Data were collected using the Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Protocols (AREMP), which are being refined in conjunction with EMDS development (Gallo, 2002). Instream metrics included Rosgen Channel Type, surface fines less that 2 mm, median particle size distribution (D50), large wood debris (LWD), pool frequency, residual pool depth, width to depth, sinuosity, gradient and aquatic insects. Upland data were supplied by Kier Associates (see below), who carried out the parallel KRIS project.

See the following Background pages for a summary of Terraqua (2004) methods and findings and supplemental information from the U.S. Forest Service, Aclifornia Department of Fish and Game and the University of California's Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project:

Subject Background Page
Aquatic Insects Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Data
Channel Condition Channel Morphology
Forest Cover/Near-Stream Meadows Vegetation and Tree Size Data & Riparian Conditions
Large Wood Large Wood Availability in Battle Creek
Pool Depth and Frequency Pool Frequency and Depth in Battle Creek
Rain on Snow Flow and Battle Creek Watershed Condition
Rhyolite Soil Erodibility
Road Density Roads in the Battle Creek Watershed
Surface Fines and Median Particle Size Sediment and Aquatic Habitat

Battle Creek Watershed Assessment Upland Conditions Assessment

Kier Associates (2003) provided assessment of upland conditions in Battle Creek as part of the Battle Creek Watershed Assessment (Terraqua, 2004) using of electronic mapping data, typically referred to as a geographic information system or GIS. These data were assembled and organized to help Terraqua quantify upland conditions and for integration into a KRIS Battle Creek Version 2.0. Spatial data in electronic form were assembled from all available sources, including Chico State University, the U.S. Forest Service, California Department of Forestry, USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Lassen National Park, Sierra Pacific Industries and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Dr. Paul Trichilo of Kier Associates and the spatial analyst for KRIS projects created GIS summaries and legends to facilitate assessment of upland conditions for Terraqua. The summaries also appear in chart form in the KRIS database where it is useful for analysis.

Climate Data for the Battle Creek Watershed

The rainfall, snow fall and air temperature data for the Battle Creek watershed were obtained from the California Department of Water Resources, California Data Exchange Center ( and Western Climate Data Center web sites. CDEC shares data from a number of cooperating agencies statewide as part of flood monitoring efforts. Rainfall and air temperature data from Manzanita Lake were acquired from the Western Regional Climate Center website (, which also has many other climate gauges throughout the West.

Coleman Hatchery Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Release Data Sets

Coleman National Fish Hatchery (CNFH) has been in operation since 1942 and was constructed to offset losses of salmon and steelhead populations as a result of the construction of Shasta Dam, which blocked hundreds of miles of spawning and rearing habitat. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service operates the hatchery and provided data on adult salmon and steelhead returns to CNFH from 1952-2003. The Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) compiles records of all hatchery releases of salmon and steelhead for the entire Pacific Northwest and contributed CNFH juvenile release data for KRIS Battle Creek Version 1.0. The release groups are divided into those marked using a fin clip and a coded-wire tag and those without a mark and tag. Coded wire tags are used for harvest management and hatchery operation. Tagged release groups can be used to gauge success of hatchery rearing strategies, the rate of harvest in ocean and river fisheries or the range of adult fish in the ocean. CNFH juvenile release data since 1998 was provided by USFWS' Red Bluff office for KRIS Battle Creek Version 2.0. For more information about Coleman Hatchery and its operations see the KRIS Battle Creek Hatchery Web Pages.

Salmon and Steelhead Adult Population Data for the Sacramento River and Battle Creek

The California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) annually estimates the population size naturally spawning chinook in the Central Valley, including the Sacramento River and Battle Creek. They annually publish escapement data in the "Grand Tab", which includes fall, late-fall, winter and spring run estimates. Some estimates are based on carcass and redd surveys and other are from dam counts. Data from 1940 to the 1980's on fall and spring chinook salmon in Deer Creek and Mill Creek are were based on CDFG carcass counts. CDFG conducts annual carcass counts to estimate the population size of naturally spawning fall chinook in lower Battle Creek. The Department also publishes annual reports on escapement and trends of winter run (CDFG, 2004) and spring run chinook (CDFG, 2004a) to the California Fish and Game Commission. Steelhead counts in KRIS Battle Creek Version 2.0 do not include estimates since 1991 because this species runs during periods when the Red Bluff Diversion Dam is lowered and flows generally prevent spawner surveys. See Background page: Methods Used to Study Salmon and Steelhead Populations.

Assessment of Potential Habitat Quality for Various Species of Chinook Salmon in Reaches of Battle Creek

The California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) requested that Ward and Kier (1999) prepare a classification system to qualify anticipated restored fish habitat in stream reaches of Battle Creek for the Battle Creek Working Group Biological Team. Draft graphics and tables were put together with guidance from CDFG and then circulated for review to National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and subsequently to all members of the Batlle Creek Working Group. Each stream reach was categorized by professional judgment using a system of five ranks on a suite of attributes including restorable temperature regimes, cold water accretions from springs, physical habitat characteristics, species life history, length of stream reach, stream gradient and past observations in the watershed. See the Battle Creek criteria for restored habitat ratings or look at graphics of restored habitat conditions for winter run chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, fall chinook and late fall run chinook in the KRIS Restoration Web Pages.

Photographs from Thomas R. Payne Associates Barrier Report

Thomas R. Payne Associates conducted a barrier assessment of Battle Creek as part of a comprehensive series of studies funded by the California Department of Fish and Game. Photos in the KRIS Battle slide tours of barriers are taken from Surveys of Barriers to Upstream Migration of Anadromous Salmonids (Payne Assoc., 1998) and are referenced by figure number in that document. See the KRIS Battle Creek Restoration Web Page for more discussion.

Battle Creek Water Temperature Data

Water temperature data used in KRIS Battle Creek were provided by four sources: Harry Rectenwald of the California Department of Fish and Game, Thomas R. Payne and Associates, Curt Babcock of the California Department of Water Resources, and by Jerry Boles of the California Department of Water Resources. Automated temperature probes were placed at various locations in Battle Creek accessible to salmon and steelhead. Probes were placed in flowing water and out of direct sun. Data were imported into Excel for analysis and transferred into DBase IV for use in KRIS or assimilated directly into KRIS using the HoboImport program.

Water temperature data for the 1998 season were supplied by Curt Babcock of the California Department of Water Resources, Red Bluff office. Original Stowaway (automated temperature sensor) datasets were trimmed and provided to Kier Associates as Excel files. These were then recompiled with KRIS HoboImport and Build Table functions within KRIS to format Source and Chart Tables. Locations of probes prior to 1998 are listed in this table.

Water temperature data from October 1998 through April 2002 were contributed by Jerry Boles of the California Department of Water Resources, Red Bluff office. Data were in multiple Excel spreadsheets, which Kier Associates compiled into a single source table.  Locations of probes, description of sites and summary results of maximum of floating weekly average and floating weekly maximum by year from 1998-2002 can also be reviewed here as a table. Maps of locations shown in the Basinwide/Regional sub-basin temperature topics.

Criteria used for stress levels for adult spring chinook and egg stages of both winter run and spring chinook are from Ward and Kier (1999) Battle Creek Salmon and Steelhead Restoration Plan. The Battle Creek Temperature Background page also contains more information.  The egg stage is the most vulnerable to high water temperatures. Winter run chinook eggs would be in the gravel up to June 30 and spring chinook eggs would be deposited after September 15. Chinook eggs experience 8% mortality if water temperatures exceed 58 degrees F (14 C) on average for more than 24 days. If the mean daily water temperature exceeds 62 degrees F (16.5 C) for more for 7-12 days, the eggs would experience 100% mortality. Holding adult spring chinook are stressed at 61 to 66 degrees F (16-18 C) and retain little fecundity if exposed to temperatures greater than 66 F for long periods. The lethal temperature for adult spring run is 80 degrees F. Adults would be holding in Battle Creek between before September 15. See the KRIS Battle Creek Temperature Chart of these criteria.

Vegetation and Tree Size Classes and Change Detection Using Landsat Imagery

Data regarding vegetation, tree size, timber types are derived from a Landsat multi-spectral image taken in 1996 analyzed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Pacific Southwest Regional Remote Sensing Lab in cooperation with the California Department of Forestry's (CDF) Fire and Resource Assessment Program (FRAP). Spatial data from 1996 were the most recent year for which the entire Battle Creek watershed was available in electronic form. The USFS and CDF have been working cooperatively to assess California Statewide vegetation in association with the Northwest Forest Plan (Warbington et al., 1998; Levien et al., 2002). The vegetation classification for northeastern California and the Battle Creek watershed are accurate to a one hectare scale. While this data scale is coarse, data have been checked using a number of different methods. Because the scale of the vegetation GIS is one hectare, individual large trees may not show up when using this analysis tool. See Vegetation Types Background page for more information on Landsat data interpretation.

The same vegetation data based on 1996 Landsat interpreted by the USFS and CDF can be used to assess riparian conditions at a one hectare scale. The KRIS project chose a 100 meter (328 foot) distance as a zone of biological influence for the riparian corridor based on Spence et al. (1996). This represents approximately two site potential tree heights as recognized by FEMAT (1993). Data may not pick up individual large trees or narrow buffer strips retained during timber harvest, if they do not comprise a significant portion of a hectare. The age and size of the trees at the water's edge and buffer area are, however, represented accurately enough to be used as reconnaissance tools for estimating potential effects on microclimate, stream temperature influence and large wood recruitment potential. This analysis was compromised in Battle Creek because of lack of accuracy of the USGS 1:100000 hydrography layers (see note).

CDF FRAP and the USFS Spatial Analysis Lab have also conducted joint exercises to show the changes in the Sierra Nevada landscape in a 1991-1996 "first assessment" (Fischer, 2001) and then 1994-1999 as part of the second wave of assessment for all California. Monitoring Land Cover Changes in California Northeastern California Project Area (Levien et al., 2002) describes this "change scene detection" method and its application for the region of the State that includes the Battle Creek watershed. Kier Associates (2003) used combined change scene detection data from both 1991-1996 and 1994-1999 and both decreases and increases in canopy to roughly estimate changes related to logging in the Battle Creek watershed (see Battle Creek Vegetation Data Background page).

Battle Creek Flow Data

Battle Creek flow data in KRIS were gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). For more information on flows within Battle Creek see the KRIS Battle Creek Hydrology Web Page or the Thomas R. Payne Associates (1998) study on instream flows. PG&E has acquired data from in and around its power stations for many years. USGS data were captured in most cases from the USGS Internet site. Periods of record vary for each stream gauge but are specified by station in metadata notes provided by USGS. Click here for a list of locations and descriptions of stream gages.

KRIS Battle Map Project

The new KRIS Map Viewer allows complete access to spatial data layers for KRIS Battle database users. Maps were assembled into a companion ArcView project called KRIS Battle Creek Maps, available on a separate CD-ROM. Map data in the KRIS Battle were assimilated from many different sources, including: the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Pacific Southwest Regional Remote Sensing Lab, California Department of Forestry (CDF) Fire and Resource Assessment Program (FRAP), Sierra-Pacific Industries, the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Map themes have a readily-accessible companion metadata file that describes the map theme and provides contact information for the source of that theme.  If KRIS is installed on your computer's hard drive and you are viewing maps using the KRIS Map Viewer (the map tab), you can view metadata for a layer by clicking on a layer in the map legend to make it the active theme and then clicking the "M" (metadata) button on the toolbar. If you are browsing KRIS on the Internet site, or viewing the web pages included on the KRIS CD-ROM, map themes are static, but you can view metadata by clicking on a metadata link on each map web page. Interpretation of patterns in Battle Creek GIS data can be reviewed in Kier Associates (2003) and in KRIS Battle Creek Background pages.



Note about documents in KRIS